مدیریت استراتژیک فناوری اطلاعات در هتل های امارات متحده عربی: مطالعه اکتشافی درباره مدیریت کیفیت جامع ، مدیریت ارتباط با مشتری ، مدیریت زنجیره تامین و پیاده سازی آنها
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|1011||2009||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8000 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Technovation, Volume 29, Issue 9, September 2009, Pages 588–595
Although IT applications in the hotel industry have largely been devoted to the handling of routine operational problems, it has become increasingly evident for hoteliers that proactively incorporating IT into their services, operations, and strategy is a key element in their quest for service excellence and high profits. Based on a recent survey of IT applications and challenges in four- and five-star hotels in the UAE, this study presents the findings of an exploratory empirical investigation in this understudied, yet one of the fastest growing tourist destination in the world. Insights and recommendations for hotel managers in the region are, thereafter, drawn from the findings.
Hotel managers around the world are under pressure to increase the profitability with limited resources and under intensifying competition. Customer service has been widely recognized as one of the main areas in which a hotel's product can be differentiated from its competitors. When addressing managerial issues related to service quality and IT, empirical studies in tourism and hospitality have often focused on a specific region such as Australia (Presbury et al., 2005), Cuba (Cervino and Bonache, 2005), Tanzania (Sharma and Upneja, 2005), Hong Kong (Law and Jogaratnam, 2005), Thailand (Sahadev and Islam, 2005), The United States (Piccoli et al., 2003), Canary Islands (Espino-Rodrigues and Gil-Padilla, 2005), and North Cyprus (Nadiri and Hussain, 2005). There is a significant body of literature that examined IT and information systems (IS) adoption and implementation from various perspectives (e.g., Zmud, 1982 and Zmud, 1984; Fichman and Kemerer, 1997). Most of these studies, however, have focused on issues related to adoption and implementation of such technologies, which are often referred to as either IT, implementation of cutting-edge information and communications technology (ICT), or IS to denote a combination of hardware, software, and networking systems. With respect to the hospitality industry, IT adoption has been gaining an increasing attention. Law and Jogaratnam (2005), for instance, provided empirical evidence for continuous use of IT for operational purposes, as opposed to strategic ones, in Hong Kong hotels. Meanwhile, Sahadev and Islam (2005) explored the propensity of Thai hotels to adopt ICT; and empirically identified a set of location and firm-related factors that influence hotels decision to adopt ICT. They found that, though hotel size was not related to ICT adoption, higher-grade hotels are more likely to adopt advanced ICT. More focused studies addressed issues such as the strategic use of IT outsourcing from a resource-based view (e.g., Espino-Rodrigues and Gil-Padilla, 2005). In contrast, Singh and Kasavana (2005) performed a DELPHI study to anticipate the upcoming changes in the IT-enabled management of hotel operations. IT use in hotels may be heading for high levels of sophistication and innovation as evidenced by Lau et al.'s (2005) demonstration of how text mining can be used in hotels. In comparison, little attention has been paid to the adoption and implementation of IT-enabled organizational innovations, such as total quality management—TQM— (e.g., Ravichandran, 2000), customer relationship management—CRM— (e.g., Raisinghani et al., 2005), and supply chain management—SCM— (e.g., Sengupta et al., 2006). These intertwined areas are usually examined separately, although they converge towards service improvement and customer satisfaction. Recent studies on tourism and hospitality industry have addressed service-quality issues and TQM in various ways and locations (e.g., Arasli, 2002). Keating and Harrington (2003) compiled a comprehensive list of studies related to TQM implementation in hotels. Their review on service-quality literature raised several provocative issues and offered various lessons for hoteliers. Several success stories and case studies have also been published in research journals as well as trade magazines. For instance, Schindlerhoff hotel, in Nuremberg, successfully implemented a quality initiative based on the European foundation for quality management (EFQM) excellence model and consequently won the Award in 1998. The Ritz Carlton was also a two-time winner of the Baldridge National Quality Award (in the US) in 1992 and in 1999. Similarly, Sowder (1996) provided a detailed case demonstration of how Hampton Inn successfully implemented TQM. Empirically, Presbury et al. (2005) interviewed 22 senior managers from 10 Sidney-based luxury hotels, and they found that impediments to developing and maintaining superior service quality include budget constraints, staff attitude, lack of mentoring, and high customer expectations. Earlier, Breiter and Bloomquist (1998) studied 230 US-based hotels and found that small and medium size hotels were less likely than large hotels to implement TQM. As in most TQM studies, Partlow (1996) emphasized the role of human resource practices in the successful implementation of TQM. These practices included cultural transformation, job redesign, employee involvement, better communication, and training, among several others. Issues related to ISO 9000 certification, in a TQM context, have also been addressed (e.g., Magd, 2005) in the literature. The literature on TQM is also replete with evidence of the use and firms’ reliance on ICT to collect, store, analyze, and deliver quality-related information and knowledge to the right people at the right time. Though directly tied to customer satisfaction, CRM has been somewhat neglected by researchers in tourism and hospitality management especially in comparison to TQM and service quality. Of the few research studies on CRM in the hospitality industry, Piccoli et al. (2003) provided an overview of the benefits and challenges of CRM implementation in the lodging industry with a special emphasis on data-ownership dilemma, which they claim to be an important obstacle for a comprehensive CRM implementation in US hotels. Still, CRM remains an attractive way for hotel chains to differentiate themselves from competitors. For instance, Marriott International implemented in 2001 a CRM package to serve about 2000 salespeople and other marketing employees (Rosen, 2001). A more IT and knowledge-intensive study was proposed by Lau et al. (2005). They provided a technical overview of text mining and a detailed demonstration of how it can be used by hotels to analyze customer data and manage customer-related knowledge. As for CRM, research on the hospitality industry has allocated relatively little attention towards developing a more complete understanding of SCM-related challenges and current practices in hotels. Whereas the management literature is replete with entire journals dedicated to SCM, a database search of empirical, conceptual, and case studies related to SCM implementation and related IT issues in this industry yielded very few entries. Avery (2006), for instance, described how Royal Caribbean Cruises won back the confidence of its supply chain customers, namely the cruise line's marine operations and hotel operations. This was achieved by hiring quality people, significantly improving delivery reliability, simplifying internal processes, upgrading their IT systems, and segmenting their suppliers using a comprehensive scorecard. Meanwhile, by compiling expert opinions from renowned hotel chains, Atkinson (2006) identified some global trends that show the growing importance of SCM in the hospitality industry. While admitting that SCM in their industry is overall years behind manufacturing, they identified several SCM challenges and risks. Still, some hotels are making significant improvements in SCM by, for instance, adopting e-procurement solutions and developing closer relations with key suppliers. These three somewhat overlapping best practices are widely adopted cross-functional and information technology-enabled enterprise initiatives that, if managed well, might become sources of sustainable competitive advantage. Strategic information systems here are defined as organizational level and far-reaching systems that should be distinguished from strategic-level systems, such as executive support systems (ESS) that support long-range planning activities of senior managers. Granted, not all organizations need the level of complexity and integration provided by enterprise systems (Davenport, 2000). Indeed, such systems can be quite costly, overwhelmingly complex, inflexible, and fraught with uncertainty. Still, empirical and conceptual research on tourism and hospitality have paid relatively limited attention to these strategic information systems, a gap in the literature that needs to be bridged. This study uses a descriptive approach to report on a recent exploratory investigation of the current IT uses and related strategic challenges in hotels located in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). More specifically, we attempt to: (1) analyze and report findings of a recent survey on IT applications and related challenges in four- and five-star hotels in the UAE, (2) assess the degree to which these hotels are using IT strategically to integrate and improve back-end operations and customer service with special focus on TQM, CRM, and SCM, and (3) explore opportunities for more effective strategic management of IT in four- and five-star hotels in this region and elsewhere. The following three sections outline some basic principles of these three IT-enabled enterprise initiatives.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Fierce competition among hotels and even entire destinations is precipitating the need for innovation in technology, organization, and strategy. In an effort to stimulate innovation among hoteliers, this study considered issues that deserve more attention in hospitality research, namely IT-enabled TQM, CRM, and SCM, especially in an understudied and fast growing location such as the UAE. While we uncovered some challenges and opportunities for hoteliers, this study actually raises more questions than it answers. As the supply of hotel rooms increases dramatically in the UAE and the neighboring countries, competition will make current occupancy levels quite difficult to achieve. The intensifying competition will compel hoteliers to look for new and sustainable sources of competitive advantage. One such source is knowledge. Academically, the research literature provides plenty of evidence of the strategic value of knowledge as a sustainable source of competitive advantage (e.g., Davenport and Prusak, 2002). In SCM, for instance, knowledge management activities enhance SCM outcomes by augmenting the internal stock of knowledge, making better use of existing knowledge, and increasing the speed of learning and innovation through higher absorptive capacity (e.g., Hult et al., 2005; and Spekman et al., 2002). Quality improvement and TQM have also benefited from organizational learning (e.g., Fine, 1986) and knowledge management initiatives (e.g., Mukherjee et al., 1998). Even CRM has been practically and theoretically linked with knowledge management, as it is the case for KCRM (knowledge-enabled CRM) and KCRM auditing (e.g., Tiwana, 2001). In practice, however, consider for instance the knowledge requirements for implementing a service-quality information system (Berry and Parasuraman, 1997). Such a system calls for combining multiple research approaches among different customer groups. Some of these approaches require a relatively high level of expertise in advanced qualitative and multivariate statistical techniques, thus making them usable only by hotels that have the necessary knowledge and talent. This requirement equally applies to other areas related to the management and implementation of cutting-edge information and communications technology. Aligning these technologies with the organization processes and best practices as well as the business strategy requires even higher levels of knowledge at the senior management levels. This study raises an important question about the readiness of UAE hotels and similar ones for knowledge-based competition, though we recognize that several hotels around the world have shown pioneering attitudes of acting as lead users of IT, organizational innovations, and best practices. Is there a particular path or a sequence of steps that hotels in our sample must follow before competing on knowledge? Is their current ICT infrastructure sufficient to support the implementation of best practices? Are these hotels advanced enough along that path to use knowledge-based CRM, SCM, and TQM? Is it even profitable for them to pursue such a path? Should four-star and five-star hotels follow the same path and adopt similar strategies? Perhaps more basic steps should precede these initiatives. Such steps might include more systematic planning and learning from other industries such as manufacturing and retail industries.