|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|102564||2018||21 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4335 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 437, 21 January 2018, Pages 137-140
It is well known that humans are creating new variants of organisms, ecosystems and landscapes. Here I argue that the degree of biological novelty generated by humans goes deeper than that. We use property rules to create exclusivity in cooperation among humans, and between humans and other biological entities, thus overcoming social dilemmas and breaking barriers to cooperation. This is leading to novel forms of cooperation. One of them is the human control, modification and replication of whole ecosystems. For the first time, there exist ecosystems with functional design, division of labor and unlimited heredity. We use mental representation and language as new mechanisms of inheritance and modification that apply to an increasing variety of biological and non-biological entities. As a result, the speed, depth and scale of biological innovation are unprecedented in the history of life.