بیماری های مرتبط با کار، حوادث مربوط به کار و عدم امنیت اجتماعی در کلمبیا
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|103863||2017||38 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Social Science & Medicine, Volume 187, August 2017, Pages 118-125
The impacts of neoliberal or market-based social security reforms in health have been extensively studied. How such reforms transformed employment-related insurance and entitlements, however, has received significantly less attention. This study aims to understand how the employment insurance system operates in Colombia and to assess how the experience of workers seeking social security entitlements relates to the system's structure. We conducted an ethnographic study of the Colombian Occupational Risk System between May 2014 and March 2016, with two main components: 1) analysis of the system itself through in-depth interviews with 32 people working in leadership positions and a systematic review of the system's most important legislation, and 2) a study of people who experienced problems receiving entitlements and were challenging the assessment of their work-related illness or accident. We conducted in-depth interviews with 22 people, followed up with half of them, and reviewed their case files. We found that difficulties accessing health care services, payments for medical leave, job reassignments, severance packages, and filing for pension benefits were common to all cases and resulted from overwhelming bureaucratic and administrative demands. Regional and national evaluation bodies dictate whether a given illness or accident is work-related, and establish a percentage of Loss of Wage Earning Capacity (LWEC). People's disabled bodies rarely reached the threshold of 50% LWEC to qualify for disability pensions. The lengthy process that workers were forced to endure to obtain work-related entitlements always involved the judiciary. The three competing for-profit financial sectors (health insurance, pension funds, and Occupational Risk Administrators) actively challenged workers' demands in order to increase their profits. We conclude that these for-profit sectors work contrary to the principles that sustain social security. Indeed, they push sick and disabled workers to unemployment, informality, economic dependence, and ultimately dire poverty.