تجزیه و تحلیل یک سیستم مدیریت منابع طبیعی در ذخیره گاه زیست کره کالاکمول
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|10421||2006||19 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||10980 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 74, Issues 3–4, 15 February 2006, Pages 223–241
An analysis of the natural resource management system was carried out for the ejido X-kanha located in the northern part of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve in Campeche, Mexico. Through field research using participatory rural appraisal (PRA), the activities carried out by different user groups were identified. Gender roles as well as age roles were analyzed. Results show that each family depends upon the diversification of productive activities in order to meet economic needs. Diversification of activities is carried out in both space and time, making use of different ecosystems during varied seasons throughout the year. Women's activities correspond to housekeeping and house administration; they take care of home gardens and are responsible for water collection and wood gathering. Men carry out the activities of working in the milpa, cattle raising, honey production, chicle collection, and wood felling. A series of PRA activities carried out with the people of X-Kanha led to the identification of limitations to more optimal uses of natural resources. The characterization of limitations and associated alternatives is used to provide a guideline to aid the efforts of NGOs and other organizations interested in the conservation of natural resources, and for the well-being of the local population.
Many tropical landscapes can be regarded as mosaics of forest patches that have “recovered” from different disturbances in which human societies have played a major role (Browder, 1996). Actually, in most “protected” tropical forests, archeological, historical and ecological evidence exists showing a high density of human population in the past and sites of continuous occupation over many centuries, and also intensively managed and constantly changing environments (Gómez-Pompa and Kaus, 1992). In that way, forest patches making up the tropical landscape are dynamic entities, where wildlife and vegetation are controlled and influenced by groups of interacting biotic and abiotic factors, of which historic and present land-use patterns are of great importance (Lyon and Horwich, 1996). Understanding the role of current human activity in this landscape is needed to understand how forests are changing over time and across space (McIntosh, 1981) and is critically important for the management and conservation of tropical forests. Tropical forests in Mexico have been estimated to be amongst the highest in deforestation rates worldwide (Cairns et al., 1995). The causes of deforestation in Mexico are multiple, with forest conversion to agricultural uses, particularly cattle ranching, the leading factor. Gómez-Pompa and Kaus (1990) attribute the root causes of deforestation in Mexico not to population growth or shifting cultivation, but to government subsidies and other incentives that promote timber extraction, settlement by landless farmers from other regions, and conversion of formerly forested lands to pastures. New approaches to tropical forestry must be developed that ensure the conservation of biodiversity. These approaches should be based on the actual needs of the local people and their development must begin with analyses of past and present tropical forest management, and of the interaction between tropical forests and local cultures (Gómez-Pompa and Bainbridge, 1995). The Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, found in the Yucatan Peninsula, is the largest protected area of tropical forests in Mexico. It represents an ecological corridor between the humid tropics of Guatemala and the Lacandon region of southern Mexico, and the northern region of the Yucatan Peninsula and the Caribbean. It is rich in biodiversity as well as in cultural inheritance. This area has been inhabited for long periods of time by the Maya people, who in the past were able to support high population densities and at the same time protect certain forest species. Today's social conditions entail rapid changes, e.g., new settlements, opening of roads and communication networks, all of which need to be taken into account when seeking improved conservation of the area. There are many organizations (governmental and non-governmental) now working in the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve area providing assistance for development and conservation efforts. According to Chapin (1991), development programs in general have been characterized by lack of coordination among funders and technical assistance agencies, poor understanding of the needs and concerns of rural people, and confusion over short- and long-term objectives. To reverse this trend, it is important to give attention to the development of organizational forms built on small, locally based initiatives (Marsden, 1994). A proposed approach for forest conservation in the Calakmul region has been the development of organizational capacity of communities to better manage their own forests through a diversified management plan that includes timber and non-timber forest products, as well as sustainable agriculture (Acopa and Boege, 1998). This strategy calls for an understanding of the current forms of organization within these communities in order to better address their strengths and limitations. It is from this perspective that we analyzed the natural resources management system of X-kanha, a Maya community in the northern part of the Calakmul Reserve. Our main objective was to identify problems and limitations that affect the socioeconomic setting, limiting economic development and the community's long-term ability to manage their natural resources. The research at X-kanha was intended to aid the efforts of the NGO, Oxfam-COMADEP,1 which was actively working in the study area. It was also intended to serve as an example of strengths and limitations that favor or hinder forest conservation and sustainable development of similar communities throughout the Maya Forest. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) was used for conducting field research, seeking information and analysis about the resource management system and the socioeconomic characteristics of the specific ejido. PRA is a method used as a learning process which enables outsiders to gain information and insight from rural people and about rural conditions. PRA is an approach and a dynamic set of methods, in which the main objective is to learn directly from the people, and in which one of its goals is to yield direct benefits to the community (Chambers, 1992). The underlying philosophy is that the solutions for natural resources management problems are often found within the local community, and that feasible solutions need to be answers to shared perspectives and problems from all user groups, in and out of the community ( WRI-GEA, 1993, Davis-Case, 1989 and Molnar, 1989).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In the ejido X-Kanha, the natural resources management system is comprised of a number of activities that complement each other in space and time. Segregation by space is by the use of different ecosystems for different productive activities, and by time is by the distribution of different activities throughout the year according to season. Generally, these activities are gender-specific. In this way, each family is dependent upon the diversification of productive activities in order to meet economic needs. Limitations and suggested alternatives for more optimal uses of natural resources were identified by the community through the PRA process. Some of the concerns are related to changes that come about in the regionalization of the local economy with the opening of roads and the improvement of communication systems. Other concerns are related to the difficulties the people in the region have for making a profit from their forest resources, particularly timber. Government policies generally favor agricultural expansion over forestry activities, undermining local use practices and environmental constraints. The lack of acknowledgment of how local groups manage their natural resources in the formulation of public policy is a central factor that determines the welfare of lowland populations and the conservation of natural resources (Godoy, 2001). However, there is also great potential in the ejido, as well as in other similar areas within the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve and in the Maya Forest in general, for developing the economy while conserving a forested landscape. The following limitations and suggested alternatives identified in this research are provided as follows. Milpa production was an important concern to ejido members because in recent times they have obtained lower yields. There is also a growing perception that mechanized agriculture could improve productivity. It should be determined which traditional practices with conservation status are still being practiced by local farmers in the area and what types of technological improvements are appropriate for the local conditions. Emphasis should be given to conducting comparisons of milpa production within plots, to understand the causes of local differences in productivity, and particularly the way in which the introduction of the cattle ranching practices is changing the traditional milpa system. A concern that arises is the new trend of establishing pastures after corn harvest, which is changing the traditional practice and altering the regeneration process of the vegetation. Regardless of the fact that cattle ranching is limited by the high cost of establishing pastures and by water availability, it is an activity that is gaining importance among the local people. It is becoming an alternative for improving economic conditions, and some people feel that it is the best of all activities to invest in. This fact represents a concern since widespread cattle grazing in tropical areas generally leads to the degradation of the structure and composition of the soil through overgrazing and erosion, also vegetation is deterred from regenerating over large extensions of land, depressing not only biodiversity, but the soil’s productive capacity as well (Jordan, 1985). It is also the number one reason for the widespread deforestation that is occurring in all of Mexico (Cairns et al., 1995). Despite these facts, cattle raising is still one of the most remunerative activities and an important investment in tropical rural areas, particularly because it is favored by government policies. Sale of cattle adds substantially to farm profits and total income, and increases monetary benefits from other sources made possible through cattle raising, e.g., it provides the opportunity to cultivate more land since hiring labor is more feasible with increased monetary returns. It can also provide the opportunity to acquire a chainsaw or a truck and expand other activities (Castro et al., 1981). Theway in which cattle raising is generally practiced, and the fact that is it perceived as the best activity to invest in (including government policies that support it), must be changed in order to achieve forest conservation in this and other tropical areas. These changes could be achieved either by promoting environmental awareness to create incentives to practice more intensive types of cattle raising (e.g., rotating pastures, planting fodder trees) or by opening markets and alternatives to other activities so people can build capital by other means. Another concern is given to the utilization of forest resources for timber products. Community members were not obtaining much profit from their rich forest resources. Markets for timber species (other than the already depleted cedro and mahogany) were few and the prices paid very low. There was no forest management plan in which the conservation of forest quality for future benefits was sought, nor were they able to obtain proper short-term benefits. The community follows the management plan prescribed by the Forest Ministry without having the understanding of why certain decisions are being taken and without contributing to the decision-making process. The result is overuse of the few wood species that have economic value. Markets should be expanded so that economic profits are found for their diverse timber resources, hence providing value and justification to forest conservation. There was also a concern that in the Permanent Forest Area poaching by outsiders was occurring. However, it was difficult for them to know the extent and the area that was affected since there is no patrol system safekeeping the ejido.We observed that local people of X-kanha were also poaching commercial species, and that this could be a major concern regarding forest quality and management efforts in the mid- and long-terms. Chicle production tends to favor forest conservation since the community is able to obtain profits from it. Research needs to be conducted regarding zapote management to determine if it is being used on a sustained yield basis. Also, marketing should be directed so that it favors the local people in better ways. Non-timber products of the forest that provide the community with high returns are good incentives for forest conservation. It would be wise to search for other non-timber resources that may be commercialized in the area. Honey production with A. mellifera is a relatively new activity with great potential. Not everyone is capable of making it profitable, but those that do obtain significant earnings. Emphasis should be given to expanding apiculture in the area. According to Acopa and Boege (1998), beekeeping has great potential for development in the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve area and surrounding regions. For women, a big concern was that seasonal fluctuations limited to a great extent failure or success of most activities carried out in the ejido. Crops were not always sufficient and they had considerable cash expenditures. Work for which people could receivewages was not always available.Women played an important role regarding the family’s economic stability during harsh times, not only by generating income, and with the help of the home garden, but also by their administrative work which depended to a large extent on the specific family relation within each household. It is important to include women in any effort of economic development in the area in order to improve the family’s livelihood conditions. Water availability was one of the biggest limitations to everyday life in the community. It limited most women’s activities through the excessive time spent in obtaining it. It also restrained vegetable production in the home garden. Water was also a major concern regarding health conditions. Developing access to the newwell can greatly benefit the community by expandingwater availability. The home garden is an alternative source of food, important for the community. Home garden production could be expanded by following the vegetable garden program that has been promoted by members of Oxfam-COMADEP, but to have successful gardens it is necessary to solve the problem of water availability. Traditional Maya techniques should be taken into consideration when developing home garden modification programs. A final concern in the area is that the people in general were not well informed about their ejido being part of a Reserve, or what that actually meant. They had noticed that in recent times outsiders were showing interest in the area. For the Reserve to be effective, the participation of local people is of the outmost importance, and they should be involved in all aspects of it as the resource users and decision-makers that ultimately determine the future structure and composition of the landscape. It is also important to consider that within the community there exist multiple and overlapping groups with respect to resource use, access, and control, and that these differences may have important social and ecological implications for how the natural resources are used and how the system is benefiting the different groups with their own interests, perspectives and priorities (Rocheleau, 1999).