حسابداری مبتنی بر مصرف و ناسازگاری تجارت در کربن
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|105311||2018||30 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Energy Economics, Volume 69, January 2018, Pages 71-78
This paper considers a recently developed consumption-based carbon emissions database from which emissions calculations are made based on the domestic use of fossil fuels plus the embodied emissions from imports minus exports, to test directly for the importance of trade in national emissions. Comparing such consumption-based emissions data to conventionally-measured territory-based emissions data produces several useful conclusions. For example, most countries are net importers of carbon emissionsâtheir consumption-based emissions are higher than their territory-based emissions. Also, while low and high income countries tend to have the largest ratios (of consumption-based emissions to territory-based emissions), the majority of middle-income countries have ratios greater than one as well. Furthermore, China alone is responsible for over half the global outflows of carbon via trade. The econometric estimationsâwhich were robust across income levelsâdetermined that: (i) trade was significant for consumption-based emissions but not for territory-based emissions; (ii) exports and imports offset each other so that exports lower consumption-based emissions, whereas imports increase them; and (iii) the fossil fuel content of a country's energy mix is more important (likely significantly so) for territory-based emissions than for consumption-based emissions; and (iv) domestic fossil fuel prices (oil, gasoline) had a negative impact on territory-based emissions but were insignificant for consumption-based emissions. Hence, there is a wedge between (i) the emissions a country is responsible forâconsumption-based emissionsâand (ii) the emissions that a country's domestic policies affectâterritory-based emissions. So, countries should have both an interest and a responsibility to help lower the carbon intensity of energy in countries that are particularly important for global carbon transfersâChina and India.