گرایش های اجتماعی از فن آوری های اطلاعات و ارتباطات در اسپانیا
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|10696||2000||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||3943 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Futures, Volume 32, Issue 7, September 2000, Pages 669–678
This article presents the results of a technological forecast program conducted at the Universidad Nacional de Educacio´n a Distancia (UNED, Madrid) during the last three years. The research covered three main technological areas: Information and communication technologies (ICTs), Manufacturing (robots), and Health and life science (biotechnology); but the focus here is only on ICTs. After examining theoretical dimensions of the ICT/society relationship, data gathered and analysed from Delphi surveys are used to examine this transformation in Spain in relation to six main trends: computerized homes, teleworking, tele-education, health, friendly technology, and personal communications.
The emergence of a new “techno-economic paradigm” [1,2] and the information society  is now taken for granted. There are two fundamental arguments on which this claim is based: the strategic importance information technologies , and the high value placed on information and knowledge in general by contemporary society . Information and communication technologies (ICTs) cover a range of techniques, instruments, and methods that allow us to obtain, transmit, reproduce, transform or modify information. In very broad terms, we can identify three distinct categories into which ITCs can be compartmentalised: basic technologies: (microelectronics and fibre-optic communications systems); information technology proper (computer design, software, artificial intelligence and interfaces); and telecommunications. The inherent potential of these different information technologies has been greatly augmented in recent years due to the nature of its link with the telecommunications field. The process of integration between computer-based technologies and telecommunications has given a new significance to information technologies. The growth of IT-based technologies as a means of communications has eroded the conventional boundary lines between computers, telecommunications and the communications media. On the one hand, the computer provides an economical and efficient way of processing and storing information, and on the other, the main function of telecommunications systems is to move this information from one location to another at great speed. Information is definitely the common denominator, the common point of departure between IT and telecommunications, and the factor that accounts for their integration. A recent study, by the Information Society Task Force formed under Spain’s National Association of Telecommunications Engineers, indicates that Spain is well equipped for the transition to the information age . This paper, based on a study undertaken at Universidad Nacional de Educacio´n a Distancia, examines how ICTs will change the future of Spain and what their impact will be on Spanish society.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
As we evaluate the spread of ICTs and their influence on the productive system and our everyday lives, it is clear that Spain is caught up in what Manuel Castells calls the “informational development mode”, a type of evolutionary trajectory which is characterised by a specific set of outcomes. Among these, we might cite the crucial role of ICT in all types of economic activity, knowledge as a key factor in gaining a competitive edge in business, and the emergence of a new social structure. In addition, the process of technological transformation has taken an international dimension, in such a way that it becomes possible to affirm that the innovations that arise in any given country will invariable be repeated in others with an identical or similar level of development. Comparative analysis of the Delphi studies carried out in Japan, the United Kingdom, Spain and France  permit us to identify the process of convergence and divergence in this dynamic of technological change. The most noteworthy and generalised tendency we find in these studies is that which refers to the automated home. The specialists in Japan, the United Kingdom, France and Spain agree in predicting the continuous incorporation of new ICT applications in the home. The home will provide the basic infrastructure for delivering a broad range of services to families and will allow family members to carry out activities that previously would have required a greater or lesser degree of spatial mobility on their part. The Delphi studies cited above outline a process where communication will become increasingly individualised. The mobile phone and software being developed for intelligent networks will allow services to be tailored to an individual’s specific and idiosyncratic set of needs, and permit a degree of technological flexibility that allows communication to be initiated at any time and in virtually any place of residence. The experts in Spain and the United Kingdom have underscored the tendency for technology to progressively “humanise” itself, as the man–machine interfaces acquire characteristics that make the technological component more user friendly, particularly through the use of natural spoken language and by reinforcing the intuitive ability of the technology in question in such a way that no special training will be required to operate numerous technological applications. The Japanese experts foresee the emergence of an entirely new technologically-oriented culture aimed at bringing the relationship between man and his machines into a greater state of harmony. In short, the technological forecasts articulated by our group of experts outline a more or less “friendly” future for technological developments. Even so, the experts are fully cognisant of the social problems that could arise by this kind of technological change. Concerns were expressed regarding an individual’s own ability to adapt to a new lifestyle, institutional control over people’s lives, a high level of unemployment, and an increasing sense of alienation throughout society.