آموزش مدیریت بحران در دانشگاه های عربی : یک ارزیابی انتقادی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|1070||2012||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Public Relations Review, Available online 2 November 2012
This research looks at the teaching of crisis management at the colleges and departments of communication and public relations in the Arab world. Major findings of the study suggest that out of 24 colleges and departments of communication and public relations surveyed by this research, only two universities teach the course crisis management in their curriculum. The latest developments in the Arab world dictate new mechanisms in managing information and news and dealing with publics and the mass media locally and internationally. The new trends of teaching crisis management focus on the multidisciplinary approach which consists of a good knowledge of news management, dealing with the media, dealing with people, business administration, information technology, social and anthropological context. All these fields of knowledge are indispensable for understanding the general background of the issues and for choosing and selecting the best communication and persuasion techniques and tactics to manage crises effectively and successfully.
The latest protests, uprisings and revolutions in some Arab countries showed the weaknesses of plans, media and communication strategies and tactics dealing with the management of these crises. Countries that were surprised with these crises such as Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen and Syria did not have clear plans and strategies to tackle the crisis and manage it efficiently and professionally. The political leadership of these countries delivered a score of irrelevant speeches badly studied and organized and not matching at all, the demands and needs of the crowds and masses who asked for political, economic and social changes. The poor handling of these crises by several Arab states shows the lack of crisis management culture in the Arab world. This is due mainly to the nature of the political structure and its philosophy of governance and management which rejects any participation from the masses in political activities. Decisions and plans adopted by governments are not subjected to criticism even if they fail. The media systems in these countries are also under the control of the state and the rulers who cannot be criticized no matter what. The lack of accountability, the absence of values of rational governance, the manipulation of public opinion, the absence of freedom of expression and opinion were strong obstacles and hurdles for the development of policies and crisis management strategies. Coombs, 2001a and Coombs, 2001b argues that the organization must have a department of public relations with a history and experience in crisis management; mainly because any organization is subjected to internal and external crisis any time.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
“Bad news is a lot like fish. It doesn’t get better with age”. Arab universities have to look back and take a critical look at the PR curriculum in terms of textbooks, training and internships and putting their outcomes in compatibility and harmony with the demands and needs of the job market and the requirements and demands of various employers and organizations. This study showed that there is a lot to do with teaching crisis management in colleges and departments of mass communication and public relations. Although, the study was focused on managing crises, the same remarks can applied to other avenues of PR such as PR management, issues management, PR campaigns, writing for PR, virtual PR. The profession of public relations is expanding rapidly in all the Arab countries. Public relations education is also getting a large success in major universities in the Arab world. As a matter of fact more than 60% of students enrolled in Arab universities major in public relations. However, and although PR scored a large success in the business, and in practice and despite its success in academia, a lot remains to be done in terms of curriculum, textbooks, training and internships. As in the case of crisis management, the PR curriculum is Arab universities should be improved, developed and updated to meet the challenges of a fast growing profession and the challenges of modern organization which compete fiercely in issues management and corporate image building and reputation management. PR Arab educators should invest a lot in textbooks which are missing very badly in all avenues and subjects of PR from principles to issues management and virtual PR. They should also look at to match their PR programs outcomes with the needs of the job markets. They should think of developing the practice or PR from press agency to issues management and reputation management. PR academicians in the Arab world should establish channels of cooperation with the industry and should establish consultative committees to adjust their programs and curriculums to the needs of the companies. The case of teaching crisis management in Arab universities showed the gap between the academia and the industry; a gap that can harm the development of professionalism in the PR field in the Arab world. Future research and studies should focus on other aspects of PR curriculum such as management, planning, training and internship, media production, writing, PR on the net to assess the PR academia and scholarship in Arab universities to determine the flaws and weaknesses and suggest propositions for effective programs and curriculums that educate, form and train graduates and future practitioners who handle crises, issues management and reputation management adequately and professionally.