تصورات گردشگران و تامین کنندگان گردشگری نسبت به مدیریت بحران در سونامی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|1073||2013||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7620 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Tourism Management, Volume 34, February 2013, Pages 112–121
This study describes tourists' perceptions toward the importance of safety measures across tourists who stay at different types of accommodation; compares the pre and post analysis of such safety measures during normal time and six months after the disaster and identify safety measures that contribute the most to the sense of beach safety. This study uses a survey, interviews, and observation. The target population was inbound tourists traveling to Thai beaches. It was found that respondents who participated in the survey six months after the March 2011 Japanese tsunami placed more importance on almost all tsunami safety measures than those who did the survey six years after the Indian Ocean tsunami. Guests at guest houses, placed the highest importance on all safety measures, whereas guests at upscale hotels, placed the lowest importance. Moreover, perceptions of beach safety were dependent on the availability of a tsunami evacuation system and a crisis management plan.
On March 11, 2011, the Japanese earthquake of 9.0 on the Richter scale caused tsunamis, which resulted in massive destruction and loss of life in Japan. Since 1960, this tsunami is one of the most severe tsunami recorded after the Indian Ocean tsunami on December 26, 2004, which killed more than 225,000 people in the region, of which more than 5000 lost their lives in Thailand (Henderson, 2005). Moreover, the Japanese tsunami on March 11, 2011 shows that even the country with the most advanced tsunami warning system could not prevent loss of life and property damage. Unlike in the past, a tsunami is no longer a rare phenomenon but has become a natural disaster that can happen at any time. While Asia may be perceived as the most tsunami risky, other parts of the world have also experienced tsunamis. To illustrate, Australia has encountered tsunamis since its European settlement, South America is statistically the most tsunami-prone destination, followed by Indonesia and the Philippines (Bird & Howes, 2008), and more than 20 tsunamis have hit California, USA in the past two centuries (Green, 2006; Roberts, 1961, pp. 327–340). Though tsunamis are less frequent in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans (Green, 2006), they sometimes occur there, too. However, while the travel and tourism industry especially beach destinations are increasingly exposed to natural disasters such as tsunamis, only a few studies (Henderson, 2005; Rittichainuwat, 2006, Rittichainuwat, 2008, Rittichainuwat, 2011 and Rittichainuwat, 2012; Rittichainuwat & Chakraborty, 2012) have examined a tsunami in the tourism context. More importantly, no study has explored perceptions of tourists and tourism suppliers toward beach safety in case of a tsunami occurrence at unaffected destinations. This study aims to: 1) describe tourists' and tourism suppliers' perceptions toward the importance of safety measures in case of a tsunami occurrence; 2) assess perceived importance of safety measures in the event of a tsunami across tourists who stay at different types of accommodation; 3) compare the pre and post analysis of tourist perceptions regarding tsunami safety measures during normal time and six months after the disaster; 4) identify safety measures that contribute the most to tourists' sense of safety at beach destinations. Understanding perceived important safety measures is helpful to ensure the confidence of tourists and local residents by increasing safety standards at tourist destinations and effectively allocating money for a safety budget.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Despite the fact that even an advanced tsunami warning system cannot guarantee complete success of evacuation during the very short time between an earthquake and a tsunami's arrival, tsunami warning systems have shown that they have prevented loss of life and property in many instances when people were able to evacuate to high-rise areas to escape from a tsunami (Bird & Lubkowski, 2005). As this study suggests, tourists still perceive a tsunami warning system and a crisis management plan as important beach safety measures to safeguard them from tsunamis. Similar to previous studies, a crisis management plan is positively viewed as management's commitment to provide reasonable care to protect their guests (Bach & Pizam, 1996). As shown in this study, before the Japanese tsunami on March 2011, tourists somewhat perceived the importance of a tsunami evacuation system and crisis management plan. However, after the tragedy, these two crisis management plans were rated as more important. Nevertheless, most tourism suppliers do not want to inadvertently remind tourists of the 2004 tsunami tragedy. They perceive that such information would frighten tourists. Moreover, there is a gap between tourist perceptions and tourist safety. As Rittichainuwat and Chakraborty (2012) notes although most tourists feel safe about overt safety measures, a stringent increase in safety measures could frighten them because such measures could create a false perception that something unwanted has previously happened at the destination. According to the US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (2001), future building development in tsunami-prone areas must be avoided to minimize future losses and to protect existing buildings through redevelopment and planning of beaches, and an evacuation plan must be available (US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (2001) cited in Bird & Lubkowski, 2005). Indeed, as an increasing number of new hotels rise along major beach fronts, these principles must be used as safety guidelines for tourist development in tsunami-prone areas. More especially, due to the increased threat of natural disasters, beaches have become vulnerable tsunami-prone areas, and hence, more research on crisis management to guard against the impact of a tsunami is necessary. Unfortunately, tourist suppliers do not welcome this kind of study. Nonetheless, it behooves them to consider that to recognize the importance of crisis management only after another tragedy like the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami may be too late. Similar to U.S. Geological Survey (2003) cited in Green (2006), this study suggests that local residents and hotels should be educated about different characteristics of tsunamis and be aware that they must evacuate to higher ground immediately after initial tremors. Thus, for example, tour guides and employees in the hospitality industry in tsunami-prone areas should acquire a basic education regarding preparedness for a tsunami evacuation to evacuate guests to safe areas. Likewise, a tsunami warning and evacuation system must cover a large territory and open seas, which is a costly investment. Thus, it is the collective social responsibility of Asian Pacific nations, which must perceive such a system as part of crisis management, and which requires international cooperation among tourism stakeholders.