رهبری به اشتراک گذاشته شده در برنامه ریزی منابع سازمانی و پیاده سازی سیستم مدیریت منابع انسانی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|10811||2013||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8400 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Human Resource Management Review, Volume 23, Issue 1, March 2013, Pages 114–125
Human resource management systems (HRMS) integrate human resource processes and an organization's information systems. An HRMS frequently represents one of the modules of an enterprise resource planning system (ERP). ERPs are information systems that manage the business and consist of integrated software applications such customer relations and supply chain management, manufacturing, finance and human resources. ERP implementation projects frequently have high failure rates; although research has investigated a number of factors for success and failure rates, limited attention has been directed toward the implementation teams, and how to make these more effective. In this paper we argue that shared leadership represents an appropriate approach to improving the functioning of ERP implementation teams. Shared leadership represents a form of team leadership where the team members, rather than only a single team leader, engage in leadership behaviors. While shared leadership has received increased research attention during the past decade, it has not been applied to ERP implementation teams and therefore that is the purpose of this article. Toward this end, we describe issues related to ERP and HRMS implementation, teams, and the concept of shared leadership, review theoretical and empirical literature, present an integrative framework, and describe the application of shared leadership to ERP and HRMS implementation.
Organizations are increasingly relying on teams to complete work. A team is a group of individuals who work interdependently to solve problems, perform work or work toward goals (Hackman, 1987). An example is the use of teams in implementing an enterprise resource planning system (ERP), which represents an information systems (IS) project. As noted by Faraj and Sambamurthy (2006: 238), “Teams are the fundamental organizational unit through which IS projects are executed.” An ERP is a business management software consisting of a suite of integrated applications organizations use to manage their information and run their businesses. ERPs are scalable, multi-functional, and complex systems and include one or more modules. The purpose of an ERP is to integrate information across core functional areas in the organization (e.g., finance, human resources, manufacturing, customer relationship, supply chain management, etc.), to facilitate the management and flow of information between the functions as well as between the organization and stakeholders. ERPs are now considered the primary technology organizations employ to manage their information (Al-Mashari, 2003). A human resource management system (HRMS) or human resource information system provides the capability of managing all aspects of an organization's human resource information and it represents one of the primary modules in an ERP. While the complexity increases with the number of modules included in an ERP implementation project, implementing a single module ERP/HRMS2 is a major undertaking. Electronic human resource (e-HR) is part of an HRMS and represents the software tools that allow organizational members to access specific HR functions and information in the HRMS and perform HR activities through the organization's intranet or the internet via a web portal. As complex systems, implementing ERPs is a complicated and lengthy endeavor often taking years to accomplish. A number of surveys have highlighted the high failure rate of ERP implementations; rates of problematic or failed implementations average over 50% (Robbins-Gioia, 2001). Because ERPs are tightly integrated systems, an ERP implementation failure in implementing one or more of the modules (e.g., Finance) can adversely affect the functioning of other modules (e.g., HRMS). While scholars have identified numerous and varied factors that can lead to ERP implementation failure, central to an IS implementation process are the implementation teams (Faraj & Sambamurthy, 2006). Teams that are capable of making decisions and executing changes have been cited as a primary implementation success factor (Nah, Lau, & Kuang, 2001). Further, as with IS project teams in general, there is a need to complete concurrent and interdependent tasks, deal with complexity, share knowledge and expertise, deal with ambiguity and collaborate. In spite of the recognition of the importance of teams to the implementation process and the challenges faced by these teams, relatively little attention has been given to IS project teams in general and ERP/HRMS implementation teams in particular. For example, ERP teams are not among the 24 major streams of ERP research identified by Al-Mashari (2003) in a review of the literature. The purpose of this article is to present shared leadership as a way to improve the management and functioning of teams in the ERP/HRMS implementation process. Shared leadership describes a team level phenomenon where leadership behaviors are engaged in by multiple individuals rather than a designated, formal team leader (Bligh, Pearce, & Kohles, 2006). Shared leadership is characterized by collaborative decision-making, knowledge sharing, and shared responsibility for outcomes, and team members leading each other toward the achievement of goals (Day et al., 2004 and Pearce and Conger, 2003). As such, shared leadership can be contrasted with the typical approach to leading and managing IS project teams, characterized by traditional hierarchical leadership (Faraj & Sambamurthy, 2006). As a relatively young and increasingly popular approach to team leadership, a need exists to summarize and integrate the shared leadership literature with the aim of applying it to teams involved in ERP/HRMS implementation and provide direction for future research. While there is a scholarly rationale for this effort, this endeavor is practical as well due to the complexity and inherent difficulty with implementing ERP/HRMS. Consequently, a review article at this point in time can both make the case for applying shared leadership to ERP/HRMS implementation teams as well as direct efforts by scientists to generate research related to the shared leadership approach for effective leadership of teams. Toward this end, we discuss HRMS/ERP implementation and teams, introduce the concept of shared leadership, review the literature with respect to its impact on team outcomes, then describe its application to ERP/HRMS implementation and propose a number of research propositions based on the presentation of an integrative framework. The framework presents antecedents, mediators, moderators and outcomes of shared leadership in teams, highlighting directions for future research.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Implementation team members represent the “worker-bees” and a critical success factor in ERP/HRMS implementation projects. These projects are very complex as well as often long in duration, spanning several years or more, and potentially involve geographical dispersion of team members. The teams play a critical role in determining whether the implementation will be a success or a failure. These teams are composed of highly skilled employees and knowledgeable workers who work on largely interdependent tasks that require cooperation, coordination, sharing of expertise, and decision-making. As such, shared leadership represents a high potential approach to enhance the effectiveness of these teams. The purpose of this paper has been to summarize the background and theory on shared leadership and describe its application to ERP/HRMS implementation teams. We encourage both the testing of the propositions presented, based on our ERP/HRMS implementation team shared leadership framework, as well as the application by organizations of shared leadership to their ERP/HRMS implementation teams.