|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|109295||2018||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||10250 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 252, 15 January 2018, Pages 30-41
Modern agriculture has led to simpler agricultural landscapes that favour the spread of pathogens and increase pressure from pests and diseases. Landscape-dependent interactions between crops and pathogens, including disease related dispersal patterns, and the benefits of reducing pathogen significance call for the design of disease-suppressive landscapes. Model-based assessment is the most efficient method of choosing among management strategies. Based on a case study in France, we ranked the effectiveness of different crop mosaics for control of phoma stem canker on winter oilseed rape (WOSR). Assessed crop mosaics were developed from strategies defined by local stakeholders: (1) isolating target from source fields (all WOSR or only WOSR harbouring RlmX specific resistance), and (2) specifying tillage on WOSR stubble according to cultivar type (with or without RlmX). Model simulations highlighted the effectiveness of WOSR-isolation as compared to RlmX-isolation. Our analyses suggest that tillage (mouldboard ploughing) was the most important factor in explaining the size and genetic structure of the pathogen population (determinant in explaining the breakdown of resistance), and yield loss. While the pathogen population and yield loss decreased with intensive management of non-RlmX-cultivars (85% of WOSR), the same management with RlmX-cultivars modified the genetic structure of the pathogen population. Increasing isolation distances led to reductions in pathogen population and yield loss only in the strategy of WOSR-isolation. Isolating source and target RlmX-cultivar had no effect on the evolution of the population's genetic structure. Although effective in phoma stem canker control, changing tillage can require significant changes for farms. Isolation distance would require extensive information on the landscape, and imply an aggregation of crops that might or might not be possible depending on a farm's spatial organization. This study could lead to the design of a Decision Support System targeting high risk (diseased) WOSR fields to be ploughed or isolated from the following year's cultivation.