برنامه ریزی منابع سازمانی (ERP) __ یک تاریخچه مختصر
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|1141||2007||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4910 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Operations Management, Volume 25, Issue 2, March 2007, Pages 357–363
This is a brief history of ERP—enterprise resource planning. Major ERP vendors are discussed as well as the major impact of developments in computer hardware and software on the industry. The industry consolidation that has recently occurred is also discussed. Interviews were conducted with Mr. Ed McVaney, founder of J.D. Edwards, Rick Allen, former VP of Finance and Administration, and Rick Snow, former Chief Legal Counsel of J.D. Edwards. Information was also obtained from Bill Robinson who held the position of “Industry Consultant” with IBM in the mid-1980s.
In the 1960s the primary competitive thrust was cost, which resulted in product-focused manufacturing strategies based on high-volume production, cost minimization, and assuming stable economic conditions. The introduction of newly computerized reorder point (ROP) systems – including economic order quantity and economic reorder point – satisfied basic manufacturing planning and control (MPC) needs of these firms. MRP – the predecessor to and backbone of MRP II and ERP – was born in the late 1960s through a joint effort between J.I. Case, a manufacturer of tractors and other construction machinery, in partnership with IBM. At the time, this early MRP application software was the state-of-the-art method for planning and scheduling materials for complex manufactured products. Earlier versions of computerized MPC systems (for example, IBM's “PICS” – production and inventory control system) had used the only large-scale storage medium available – magnetic tape. Inventory item master files were kept on tapes, transaction tapes were built during the week, and “passing the tapes” created a new master tape plus lists of orders based on calculated order quantities, safety stocks and on hand balances. (Economic order quantities were calculated by hand using slide rules and entered into the system: first and early second generation computers were not capable of calculating square roots.) Tape is a one-dimensional medium: manufacturing is (at the least) a two-dimensional business. Projecting requirements of components over future time buckets is a two-dimensional problem; exploding down through a bill of material is a two-dimensional exercise. There were some small shops with very shallow bills of materials, which had schemes for exploding requirements using multiple passes through card sorters. These were rare and, typically, completely dependent on one person who had mastered a technique for this particular data processing art. It was the availability of random access memory that changed the game and made MRP possible.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Y2K was arguably the single “event” that signaled both the maturing of the ERP industry and the consolidation of large and small ERP vendors. It took a few years, but by 2002, and following the crash of technology and ‘dot com’ stocks beginning in 2000, software companies were looking for ways to improve product offerings and increase market share. Between 2000 and 2002 software companies faced significant pressure to downsize following their amazing growth leading up to 2000. Our interview with Rick Allen, the former Executive Vice President of Finance and Administration and member of the J.D. Edward's Board of Directors during the PeopleSoft acquisition of J.D. Edwards, offered insight into the consolidations that occurred during this period (Allen, 2006). In 2002 the major players in order of size were SAP, Oracle, PeopleSoft and J.D. Edwards; Baan had fallen out by this time. Allen indicated that, at this time, J.D. Edwards had performed extensive analyses of options for growing the business. These options included acquisitions of competing companies, mergers, or securing additional financing for developing new products. Although there were earlier meetings, a major event occurred on 31 October 2002 when Craig Conway, President and CEO of PeopleSoft, contacted Bob Dukowsky, CEO of J.D. Edwards concerning potentially serious talks about merging the two companies. Allen reported that the merger looked attractive from a number of points of view. First, the software products were complementary: J.D. Edwards's products were stronger in manufacturing, accounting and finance while PeopleSoft was very strong in human resources products. Second, there was very little overlap in their software offerings. Further, the merged company could offer a much more complete software portfolio to the combined set of customers. Finally, the two companies could see that the merger would result in a company that was larger than Oracle, their major competitor along with SAP. The PeopleSoft/J.D. Edwards merger was announced on 2 June 2003. On Friday of the same week (6 June 2003), in a great surprise to the industry, Oracle announced a hostile takeover bid for PeopleSoft. Rick Snow, the Chief Legal Counsel J.D. Edwards has vivid recollections of this period—including a 6 a.m. phone call on 6 June 2003 from Rick Allen, then J.D. Edwards’ VP of Finance. Snow recalls this period with the following: