دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 11504
عنوان فارسی مقاله

افزایش خدمات اشتغال زایی و تاثیر آن بر مجموع رشد بهره وری

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
11504 2007 22 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید 8570 کلمه
خرید مقاله
پس از پرداخت، فوراً می توانید مقاله را دانلود فرمایید.
عنوان انگلیسی
The rise of service employment and its impact on aggregate productivity growth
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Volume 18, Issue 4, December 2007, Pages 438–459

کلمات کلیدی
صنعتی شدن - خدمات برای تقاضای متوسط - خدمات برای تقاضای نهایی - تفاوت رشد بهره وری
ترجمه چکیده
This paper has provided a model that integrates the argument of Baumol (1967) with that of Oulton (2001). To be more precise, we have investigated the movement of the sectoral employment share and the rate of economic growth when services are used for both intermediate input and final consumption. It is assumed in the analysis that the productivity growth of services is lower than that of manufacturing and that the consumption ratio of services to manufacturing remains constant through time. Using the model thus obtained, we show that the employment share in manufacturing and the rate of economic growth will decline in the long run irrespective of the size of the elasticity of substitution in the manufacturing sector. We have confined our analysis to the case of no shifts in final demand. Shifts in demand can be expressed as a change in the parameter K which represents the consumption ratio of services to manufacturing. We can show that as K gets larger, other things being equal, the employment share in manufacturing gets smaller and the rate of economic growth becomes lower. This holds independently of the size of the elasticity of substitution. Russo and Schettkat (2001), as stated above, report that the consumption ratio in advanced countries increases, that is, demand shifts from manufacturing toward services. This corresponds to a rise in K in our model. Finally, it should be noted that our results depend on the assumption that the productivity growth in services is lower than that in manufacturing. There are difficulties in measuring productivity, especially productivity in services. Moreover, measuring TFP is not always immune from theoretical criticism. Therefore, our conclusions should be interpreted with caution.
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله افزایش خدمات اشتغال زایی و تاثیر آن بر مجموع رشد بهره وری

چکیده انگلیسی

This paper investigates how the employment shift from manufacturing toward service sectors affects the rate of economic growth when services play their role both in intermediate and in final demand. Our model includes as a special case both Baumol’s [Baumol, W.J., 1967. Macroeconomics of unbalanced growth: the anatomy of urban crisis. American Economic Review 57 (3), 415–426] model, in which services are produced only for final consumption, and Oulton’s [Oulton, N., 2001. Must the growth rate decline? Baumol’s unbalanced growth revisited. Oxford Economic Papers 53 (4), 605–627] model, in which services are entirely devoted to intermediate demand. We show that, given that the growth rate of productivity in the service sector is lower than that in the manufacturing sector, both the employment share in manufacturing and the rate of economic growth will decline in the long run irrespective of the size of the elasticity of substitution between labor and service input.

مقدمه انگلیسی

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of deindustrialization on economic growth. Following Rowthorn and Wells (1987), we define deindustrialization as a decline in the share of employment in industry especially in manufacturing. Since the employment share of agriculture in developed countries is very small, deindustrialization suggests a rise in the share of employment in services. Table 1 shows the share of industrial, service, and agricultural employment in France, Japan, the UK, and the US. The data come from the World Bank, World Development Indicators 2004 (for 1980 and 2001) and Maddison (1995) (for 1950). The share of service employment consistently rises while that of industrial employment declines from 1980 to 2001.

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of deindustrialization on economic growth. Following Rowthorn and Wells (1987), we define deindustrialization as a decline in the share of employment in industry especially in manufacturing. Since the employment share of agriculture in developed countries is very small, deindustrialization suggests a rise in the share of employment in services. Table 1 shows the share of industrial, service, and agricultural employment in France, Japan, the UK, and the US. The data come from the World Bank, World Development Indicators 2004 (for 1980 and 2001) and Maddison (1995) (for 1950). The share of service employment consistently rises while that of industrial employment declines from 1980 to 2001.What causes such an employment shift? What effect does it have on economic growth? Baumol (1967) is a pioneer in this field. He classifies economic activity into two sectors: the technologically progressive and technologically stagnant sectors. The former and the latter can be thought of as manufacturing and services, respectively. Then he presents a two-sector growth model and shows the mechanism of deindustrialization.1 Moreover, he reveals that deindustrialization depresses the rate of economic growth. Baumol has made two important assumptions in his model: (i) the two sectors differ in the growth rate of productivity; (ii) output ratio of the two sectors is kept constant. In Baumol’s model, both sectors produce for final consumption and no intermediate input exists, so that the assumption of constant output ratio means constant consumption ratio. Therefore, assumption (ii) concerns the demand side of the model, while assumption (i) is involved in the supply side. In contrast, Oulton (2001) formalizes a situation where services are used for intermediate demand in manufacturing sector and shows that if the growth rate of productivity in service industry is positive, then the ongoing of deindustrialization does not retard economic growth, rather, it increases the growth up to a certain point. Note that in Oulton’s model the final product is only manufacturing and the service is entirely dedicated to intermediate demand. Therefore, the model cannot consider the demand side assumption stressed in Baumol’s model. The present paper investigates how the employment shift from manufacturing toward service sectors affects the rate of economic growth when the services play their role in both intermediate and final consumption, which makes it possible to deal with the assumption of constant consumption ratio in the model. The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 explains Baumol (1967), Oulton (2001), respectively. As stated above, the former assumes sectoral differences in productivity growth and constant output ratio, and the latter emphasizes services as intermediate demand. Therefore, empirical evidence from literature on these issues is also surveyed briefly. Section 3 presents our model and analyzes deindustrialization and its consequences for economic growth. Section 4 concludes the paper. Appendix A provides the results of various production functions.

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