پذیرش سازمانی فن آوری اطلاعات : مورد سیستم های برنامه ریزی منابع سازمانی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|1152||2008||15 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9840 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : The Journal of High Technology Management Research, Volume 19, Issue 1, 2008, Pages 21–35
This paper reviews the adoption of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems which were implemented and are still being implemented in many industries today. The study defines organizational adoption of ERP systems through building a framework which has the core Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) variables (perceived ease of use of ERP system and perceived usefulness), and satisfaction; and common actors of an ERP project: technology, user, organization and project management. A survey was conducted after studying the literature and making qualitative studies. Results of the study revealed that organizational adoption can only be accomplished if the satisfaction with the ERP system is achieved by competency and flexibility of the technology along with the special efforts of project management during project implementation. This study not only handles problems of ERP from a new perspective, but also provides researchers and managers with insight about adopting the ERP software across the organization.
It is not so hard to understand why ERP systems gained so much importance in the market. In the very beginning of the 1990's, when the business world moved ever closer to a completely collaborative model, there was a high level of competition in the market and competitor organizations looked for ways of gaining competitive advantage against their opponents. However, it was not easy. They needed to upgrade their capabilities, improve their own business practices and procedures (Loizos, 1998). Under that pressure, to deal with this radically changing environment, many organizations had changed their Information System (IS) strategies by adopting ERP software packages rather than doing in-house development (Holland and Light, 1999 and Laudon and Laudon, 1996). At that time, the organizations needed to make sound and timely business decisions and ERP systems offered this to them (Davenport, 1998). These systems provided integration and optimization of various business processes and this was what the companies looked for (Mabert, Soni, & Venkataramanan, 2003). It is not wrong to say that ERP systems gained importance as they arrived at a time when process improvement and accuracy of information became critical strategic issues (Yen & Sheu, 2004). ERP systems are being developed continuously and nowadays they can encompass all integrated information systems that can be used across any organization (Kumar, Maheshwari, & Kumar, 2003). The improvement of the internet has shown tremendous impact on every aspect of the IT sector including the ERP systems (Lawton, 2000). This environment of accessing systems resources from anywhere anytime has helped ERP vendors extend their ERP systems to integrate with newer external business modules such as Supply Chain Management (SCM), Customer Relationship Management (CRM), Sales Force Automation (SFA), Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS), Business Intelligence (BI), and e-business capabilities (Rashid, Hossain, & Patrick, 2002). This proves that borders of ERP systems are being extended continuously. In spite of high expectations of the organizations purchasing ERP software, most of ERP projects become over-budget, late and even fail (Genoulaz and Millet, 2006, Griffith et al., 1999, Hong and Kim, 2002, Kumar et al., 2003 and Seewald, 2002). Although ERP systems are functionally wealth, standardizing organizational processes with these systems is often difficult (Genoulaz & Millet, 2006). The top three reasons for the failure of IT-related projects, as cited by IT managers, were poor planning or poor management (cited by 77%), change in business goals during the project (75%), and lack of business management support (73%) (Davis & Wilder, 1998). These are valid reasons for ERP projects, too. Davenport (1998) explained the failure occurrence by two reasons: The technical complexity of the solutions that requires a great deal of expertise, and the mismatch between technical specifications of the system and the business requirements of the company (Davenport, 1998). Furthermore, Buckhout, Frey and Nemec (1999) suggested that ERP difficulties stem from two issues: The company makes the strategic choices needed to configure the systems and processes, and the implementation process spins out of control. Umble, Half, and Umble (2003) dealt with the subject from another perspective. They claimed that given the level of investment and length of time needed to implement ERP systems, many companies have proceeded to implement ERP without making any return on investment (ROI) calculations.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
An ERP system is perhaps one of the most inclusive technologies in organizations so far. Although most of the ERP projects are failures, ERP is still expected to remain the biggest segment of large and mid-size companies' IT applications budgets (Seewald, 2002). This paradox—in spite of high failure ratio they are still being sold—proves why ERP was chosen to be exercised within this and many other studies. Organizational adoption is accepted to be one of the most important factors of implementing successful projects. However, there is a lack of empirically supported research on critical ERP adoption issues. This absence was the main motivation factor to study organizational adoption of ERP systems by surveying the organizations which have adopted ERP systems. The main goals of this study were building a framework to understand organizational adoption of ERP systems; consider former technology adoption models like TAM, ERP failure factors, opinions of local experts and past research while constructing the model; and finally prove not only use, but also end user satisfaction's influence on organizational adoption. This study tried to study organizational adoption by considering all actors and factors of an ERP implementation project as such a study was not constructed before. The framework of the study included technology, organization, user and project management as mediators of user perceptions and end user satisfaction of ERP systems. Project management was also taken into account as it plays an important role on integrating the ERP system, processes and users. As well as the influence of capabilities of technology, organization, user and project management on perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, this study also tested the effect of project management efforts on fitting the gaps between these three actors as it was considered that integrity of these actors was very effective on organizational adoption of ERP systems. To sum up, the model has antecedent of TAM constructs of perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness as well as satisfaction.