تغییر الگوهای نیروی انسانی جهانی در شرکت های چند ملیتی: چالش هایی برای واگذاری مرسوم خارج از کشور و جایگزین های در حال ظهور
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|11596||2007||16 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||11415 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of World Business, Volume 42, Issue 2, June 2007, Pages 198–213
We argue that many MNCs continue to underestimate the complexities involved in global staffing and that organisations and academics must take a more strategic view of staffing arrangements in an international context. We suggest that the context for the management and handling of the international assignment has altered significantly, leading in some quarters to a fundamental reassessment of the contribution of, and prospects for, the international assignment as conventionally understood. We explore a variety of supply side issues, cost issues, demand side issues and career issues as triggers to this reassessment. Alongside the conventional expatriate assignment, we point to the emergence of a portfolio of alternatives to the traditional international assignment including short-term assignments, commuter assignments, international business travel and virtual assignments. In the context of these developments, we argue that a standardised approach to international assignments is untenable and that it is essential to develop HR policies and procedures that reflect differences in the various forms of emerging alternative international assignments and their associated complexities. Here recruitment and selection, training, reward, and occupational health and safety issues and implications are all explored.
The topic of international assignments has an established pedigree in the international management literature and has in particular dominated the research agenda of international human resource management (IHRM) for over three decades. While the research focus of those investigating the IHRM field has expanded significantly in recent years, expatriate management issues remain a critical concern (Collings & Scullion, 2006; Lazarova, 2006; Stahl & Björkman, 2006). Staffing issues are complex in the international environment (Torbiorn, 1997), something which is attested to by a stream of research highlighting inter alia: the importance of effective staffing strategies for the successful implementation of international business strategies, especially strategic alliances and cross-border mergers in emerging and culturally distant markets; the decision points relating to different approaches to international staffing; the problem of shortages of international managers, particularly in emerging markets, where there is often fierce competition between MNCs and local organizations to recruit and retain high quality staff; the requisite supports necessary in order to ensure a satisfactory outcome from the organisational and individual perspective; and the management and utilisation of knowledge flows which may accrue (cf. Evans, Pucik, & Barsoux, 2002; Minbaeva & Michailova, 2004; Schuler, Jackson, & Luo, 2004). However research suggests that many MNCs continue to underestimate the complexities involved in global staffing (Tung, 1998). Concomitantly, the context for the managing of the international assignment has altered significantly, leading in some quarters to a fundamental reassessment of the contribution of, and prospects for, the international assignment as conventionally understood. The importance of this reassessment has been signalled by those who have questioned why multinationals continue to use conventional expatriate assignments to the extent that they do due to the high costs and continuing problems associated with such assignments (Morley & Heraty, 2004; Scullion & Brewster, 2001), and by the increasing prominence of alternative forms of international assignments and the emergence of a portfolio of assignments within the international firm (Fenwick, 2004; Roberts, Kossek, & Ozeki, 1998). We build on this emerging body of literature through exploring the issues surrounding the ongoing utility of the conventional expatriate assignment and the key issues around alternative forms of international assignments. The paper contributes to our understanding of international assignments by critically exploring the current context for international assignments in MNCs. First, we critically re-examine the reasons advanced for the utilisation of expatriates in the traditional assignment (usually three to five years and involving the relocation of the expatriate and their family) in view of changing patterns of global staffing. Much of the research on the management of expatriates available in the international literature until fairly recently has been drawn from research focused on North American MNCs. In this journal Scullion and Brewster (2001) advocated that research be conducted on countries other than in the US in order to develop a broader understanding of expatriation. This is reflected in our paper which draws heavily on recent research in Europe and elsewhere and we take up the challenge of developing this broader understanding by contributing to a deeper appreciation of the importance of the context in which staffing takes place. Finally, our paper critically examines the growing importance of alternative forms of international assignments in the light of recent research which suggests that long-term assignments may become less dominant as new patterns of global staffing emerge (Scullion & Collings, 2006a). In particular we focus on four key questions with regard to these assignments, namely: (1) how can we classify alternative forms of international assignments; (2) in what circumstances are alternative forms of international assignments considered appropriate; (3) What evidence is there on levels of use of alternative forms of international assignments; (4) What operational issues emerge in the context of managing these assignments.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The literature demonstrates that expatriate assignments do offer a number of potential benefits as well as the well-documented costs to MNCs in staffing their foreign operations. The challenges associated with such assignment have resulted in international assignments gaining a degree of critical attention from scholars in the field. In this regard we argue that both international organisations and academics must take a more strategic and holistic view of staffing arrangements in the international context. The first key decision to be made by top managers in MNCs is whether or not a traditional expatriate assignment best meets the organisational requirements on a case-by-case basis. In other words could the proposed objectives be achieved through an alternative means? Academics could advance the theoretical literature in the field by developing taxonomies or models that aid practitioners’ decision making in this area. We argue that multinational companies, in response to cost pressures and growing problems of staff shortages and resistance to international mobility are making greater use of a range of alternative or non standard forms of international assignment such as short-term assignments, commuter assignments, international business travel and virtual assignments (see Dowling & Welch, 2004). In this regard, the literature suggests the emergence of a portfolio of forms of international assignment within the MNC as opposed to the demise of the traditional assignment (Roberts et al., 1998). A key challenge for practitioners in MNCs will be to develop effective international HRM policies and practices to ensure the effective implementation of alternative international assignments. Our review suggests that a standardised approach to international assignments would not be effective and that it would be essential to develop HR policies and procedures that reflect differences in the various forms of alternative international assignment.