مدیریت مبتنی بر عوامل حیاتی موفقیت در اجرای سیستم های برنامه ریزی منابع سازمانی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|1160||2008||26 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, Volume 9, Issue 3, September 2008, Pages 175–200
This study examines critical success factors for implementing Enterprise Resource Planning systems using the framework of classical management theory. The study is motivated by conflicting results in earlier studies examining critical success factors in Enterprise Resource Planning implementation, many of which are anecdotal in nature. Ten critical success factors in ERP systems implementation proposed in past literature are selected. The relationship between each of these factors and project success is examined. Project success is defined as organizational impact and on time and on/under budget project completion. Eight implementation projects were qualitatively analyzed using the case study method to examine the proposed relationships. The findings suggest that choosing the right full time project manager, training of personnel, and the presence of a champion relate to project success. The use of consultants, the role of management in reducing user resistance and the use of a steering committee to control the project do not appear to differentiate successful and unsuccessful projects. Integration of ERP planning with business planning, reporting level of the project manager, and active participation of the CEO beyond project approvals, resource allocation and occasional project review, are not found to be critical factors of success. Considering the financial cost and risk associated with these projects, a better understanding of critical success factors will enable practitioners and academics to improve the chance of success in the implementation projects. All organizations implementing ERP, especially small and mid-sized enterprises with limited resources, will benefit from this knowledge.
This paper examines critical success factors (CSFs) in Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems implementation. Much of the prior work on CSFs relies upon surveys of project managers, IT executives or consultants giving prescriptive recommendation without systematically examining whether the practices were actually used in projects or if those projects were successful. This paper contributes to the growing literature on critical success factors in ERP implementations by determining whether the practices recommended in the literature are actually used in ERP implementation projects and whether these practices are related to project success. Ten critical success factors suggested in the IT and ERP literature were selected and tested using eight case study companies to determine: (1) whether the practices recommended in the literature were followed in their implementation projects; and (2) whether the projects were successful in terms of organizational impact and were completed on time and on budget. ERP systems promise to provide an integrated, packaged software solution to the information needs of organizations for replacement of legacy information systems. These legacy systems are usually aging piecemeal solutions created by IS departments or older off-the-shelf packages that have become difficult to maintain and no longer meet the business needs of the organization. Despite the promise of ERP systems, these software solutions have proven “expensive and difficult to implement, often imposing their own logic on a company's strategy and exiting culture” (Pozzebon, 2000, p. 1015). Numerous examples of failed and abandoned implementation projects are cited in past literature, such as Fox–Meyer Drug, Mobile Europe, Dell and Applied Materials (Davenport, 1998). Wah (2000) cites failures at Whirlpool, Hershey, Waste Management, Inc. and W.L. Gore & Associates. Further, the University of Massachusetts-Amherst (Bray, 2004) and Indiana University (Songini, 2004), have also experienced lost revenue, wasted time, cost overruns and delays in ERP implementation projects. The Chaos Chronicles indicate that only 34% of IT projects undertaken by Fortune 500 companies are successfully completed (Nelson, 2005). ERP is no exception. Muscatello and Parente (2006) cite ERP failure rates to be as high as 50%. Although these findings differ in percentage, the message is clear that IT projects, including ERP, are very risky. Brown and Vessey (2003) observe, “Although failures to deliver projects on time and within budgets were an old IT story, enterprise systems held even higher risks — they could be a ‘bet-our-company’ type of failure” (p. 65). Nike's ERP implementation is included in a listing of “infamous failures in IT project management” because of a major inventory problem which resulted in a profit drop of $100 million in the 3rd quarter of 2000 (Nelson, 2007).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
A study completed in 1986 on MRP implementation practices found “a lack of good old fashioned management in the implementation approach used for projects that were unsuccessful (Sneller, 1986)).” This current study finds that firms implementing ERP are generally using recommended management practices. These practices work for some projects and do not work for others. Some possible explanations are now discussed. Karimi et al. (2007) examine ERP implementations from the organizational innovation and technology assimilation perspectives. They suggest that implementation outcomes are associated with business process outcomes and by ERP delivery systems, both of which are considered in this study. Karimi et al. add a third factor affecting ERP implementations they call ERP radicalness, which examines how far ERP business processes depart from existing processes. This study does not examine the radicalness factor, although at least in some of the cases the level of systems sophistication was very primitive before ERP and these cases would have a high degree of radicalness. High radicalness or degree of change in business processes was the situation at MudCo, for example, which was a successful implementation. The ERP radicalness factor does not appear to explain the findings. Ifinedo and Nahar (2006) found contextual factors influenced assessments of project success. Industry climate and national economic climate “positively and significantly impact ERP systems success assessment.” The cases in the current study encompass ten years and a wide variety of economic and industry climates, so they do little to support this theory. A third possible explanation can be found in the work of Grabski and Leech (2007) who explore complementary controls and ERP success. They apply the work of Milgrom and Roberts (1995) on the economic theory of complementarity to ERP success, concluding that the project management, change management, alignment of the business and new information system, internal audit activities, and consultant and planning activities are complementary factors. That is, “the impact of one factor on the success of the ERP implementation depends on or is moderated by the levels of the other factors (p. 35).” Maciariello and Kirby (1994) refer to this relationship as the mutually supportive management systems model.