پیاده سازی سیستم های برنامه ریزی منابع سازمانی (ERP) مد در چین : مطالعه موردی، بررسی و چالش های آینده
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|1197||2012||42 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Production Economics, Available online 20 December 2012
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems have been widely applied in the fashion industry. An ERP system is a cross-functional system which integrates various units in the company with an attempt to shorten processing time, increase responsiveness, and achieve competitive advantages. Among all the modules popularly included in an ERP system, there is a critical one called the order-to-cash (OTC) module. In this paper, Levi Strauss & Co. in China-Hong Kong (LSCO-CHK) is selected as the target case company. Via semi-structured interviews and discussions with some staff members of the company, we examine the implementation of OTC module in LSCO-CHK's ERP system. The benefits and the problems encountered during the system development process are examined. Based on the case study results, and the extensive literature review, we conclude that whether implementing fashion ERP systems in China can successfully enhance production and operations management relies on many measures which include (i) understanding the “human mindset” of Chinese society, (ii) showing full respect to the staff members during the implementation process, (iii) emphasizing the importance of guanxi with both internal staff members and external business partners, (iv) providing attractive tangible and intangible incentives to participants. We argue that if the above measures are well-taken, implementing technological information systems solutions in China can be more successful than the ones in the western countries because of the Chinese cultural merit which treasures “cooperation” when Chinese people feel respected. Finally, future challenges and research opportunities on implementing fashion ERP systems in China are explored.
Speed to market is one of the most important competitive advantages in nowadays' fashion retail market (Chen et al., 2010 and Choi, 2012). As the fashion cycle is short (which leads to a more volatile marketplace) and fashion icons are less predictable (Gillooly, 1998), both speed and flexibility are required to satisfy customers who expect increasingly good value and more fashion content (Yang et al., 2011). In order to enhance the responsiveness of the whole supply chain, time management and the use of technology become crucial topics in the industry (Al-Mashari and Zairi, 2000, Bertolini et al., 2004 and Choi et al., 2006). The concept of quick response (QR) was developed in the 1980s as a tool of improving response time in the textile production pipeline (Gargeya and Brady, 2005 and Choi and Sethi, 2010 In general, QR refers to the strategy that aims at improving the response time from the selection of a garment by a retailer to its replenishment by a manufacturer. Many fashion retailers, such as Zara, New Look and George at ASDA, have developed a variety of QR strategies that increase their responsiveness to the volatile market (Gillooly, 1998). This trend has also spread to China and a lot of brands in China, such as Vancl (Wei and Zhou, 2011), are also adopting quick response in their fast fashion concept. Responsiveness requires information sharing among all members across the supply chain and thus how to facilitate channel coordination is a major problem to address (Li et al., 2008c, Gao et al., 2008, Xu et al., 2011, Xu et al., 2008a and Xu et al., 2008b). Enterprise resource planning (ERP) system solution has been employed to deal with this issue by re-engineering the supply chain within and beyond an organization (Li and Zhao, 2006, Li et al., 2001, Aubert et al., 2012, Fryling, 2010, Johansson and Newman, 2010, Koch and Mitlohner, 2010, Li, 2012, Xu, 2007 and Xu, 2011). ERP platform is specifically necessary in the fashion industry. This is because the fashion industry and its supply chains face a demand-driven market and it becomes upmost important to obtain the latest market information and share the information among the channel members (Fernie, 1994). However, poor ERP implementation frequently occurs owing to: (1) complex implementation as it requires cross-module integration; and (2) culture differences and lack of communication between the organization and end-users. As a result, the cost to operate and maintain an ERP system is substantial (Soh et al., 2000 and Umble et al., 2003).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Through the study of the LSCO-CHK case and the reviewed literature, we have demonstrated how ERP system can improve business performance and how new system adoption brings different impacts to the company operating in China. Specific critical successful factors for the case in China are also summarized. As a remark, although there are some concerns from the employees in LSCO regarding the ERP system implementation, the use of information technology in the marketplace and the improvement of supply chain management are the dominant trend. Implementation of a new system requires commitments from the staff at all levels and it is a long-run project, companies should carefully carry out the implementation plan and ensure that the new system can be operated by the users smoothly. In turn, the proper way of the use of information system would bring numerous benefits to the company. To conclude this paper, we provide concise answers to the five core research questions we raised in Section 1. (1) The literature advancement on the implementation and applications of fashion ERP systems in China: From the reviewed literature, we notice that the fashion ERP systems developments and deployments in China have yielded the following benefits: (i) Information availability, (ii) faster processing, (iii) uniform organization, (iv) quicker customer responsiveness, and (v) better cash flow management. From the case study on LSCO, we observe that these benefits are all related to the intended objectives in the company's ERP system project (especially the OTC module), and LSCO has partially fulfilled them. In terms of the success factors, the literature has indicated that: (i) organization culture and policies, (ii) language and communication, (iii) legal and political issues, (iv) guanxi, (v) management commitment, (vi) good incentive, and (vii) technical support are all critical. (2) The possible issues that a fashion company may encounter during ERP system implementation in China: From the LSCO case, we reveal that the possible issues and challenges a fashion company will face in its ERP system implementation in China are: (i) File compatibility problem, (ii) failure in having seamless information sharing of all teams, and (iii) problem with stock replenishment. To a large extent, these challenges come from insufficient technical support and infrastructure prior to implementation (see Li et al., 2008b for many insightful discussions). (3) The factors that may lead to successful ERP system implementation for a fashion company in China: As shown in the LSCO case, we reveal that understanding the organization culture and policies, establishing proper guanxi, providing appropriate and good incentive, and offering sufficient technical support are all the critical success factors for a fashion company's ERP system implementation in China.