تولید ناب و اینترنت
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|12144||2004||14 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 89, Issue 3, 18 June 2004, Pages 247–260
In this paper, the implications for lean production systems of the Internet are explored. Does the World Wide Web facilitate the implementation of Just-In-Time (JIT) production systems, or alternatively, can it serve as a substitute for JIT? The possible effects on supply chains, production scheduling, inventory control, procurement, quality improvement, and the workforce are some of the issues addressed. Some case examples of use of the Internet for these purposes are presented. Constraints on the use of the Web to foster leanness are discussed and recommendations for integrating the Internet into production systems offered.
In the 1990s, many manufacturing firms around the world adopted lean production as a strategy to increase their global competitiveness. Some firms have made much progress in implementing lean production in their factories while others have found it to be very difficult and are still struggling with implementation, or in some cases, given up the attempt. Some of the companies that have been successful in converting their manufacturing facilities to lean production have begun to spread lean principles to other business activities (e.g. product design, payments processing, order taking) or into their supply chains. They are attempting to move beyond lean manufacturing to become lean enterprises. Since the advent of the concept of lean production, which itself is derived from the Just-In-Time (JIT) system developed by Toyota beginning back in the 1960s, there have been many advances in information technology (IT), particularly the widespread deployment of the World Wide Web and the Internet. Almost every firm and business function has been impacted by the Internet in the last few years and whole new industries have arisen because of the technology. Of course, lean production systems are not immune from the effects of the Internet. But what are these effects likely to be? Will they allow lean production concepts to be more fully applied, or, on the other hand, might they serve as an alternative way to increase operational efficiency? In fact, some have seen an inherent conflict between lean principles and IT such as the Internet ( Piszczalski, 2000). It is argued that lean production emphasizes reducing variety and flexibility to achieve greater efficiency whereas one of the benefits of IT is its ability to provide more flexibility and product variety. Also, many proponents of lean production believe simple visual systems (such as kanban) are sufficient to control a pull system and that computer systems tend to shift production control from a line to a staff function that is undesirable in lean thinking. Furthermore, computer systems can be expensive and difficult to implement and may distract attention from continuous process improvement. In this paper, we will discuss the ways in which the Internet is already having an impact on firms using lean production methods and its potential for deepening and broadening these effects. We will argue that the Internet is a facilitator to the implementation of lean production and lean enterprises and, in fact, a synergy exists between the two. In other words, if appropriately applied, the Internet can help make production systems leaner, and even more significantly, make the entire supply chain leaner. In Section 1, the principles of lean production will be examined and how theoretically the Internet might affect the implementation of these principles. In Section 2, some examples of how firms have actually used the Internet to make their lean production operations more effective are discussed. Section 3 examines some constraints and barriers to integration of the Internet into lean enterprises. In Section 4, we reflect on the theoretical grounding of value creation in the combined system of lean production, enterprises, and the Internet. 5 and 6 draw conclusions and present some guidelines for using the Internet to make the firm and its supply chain leaner, or e-lean, as it has been called ( Piszczalski, 2000).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
As was discussed above, there are many reasons why the Internet can facilitate the movement to lean production systems, and a few firms have made tentative efforts in that direction. Most of the applications have been in supply chain management, which is a logical target for a lean approach. Lean thinking has slowly spread from the factory floor (lean production) to activities such as order processing, billing, and product development (the lean enterprise). Now some firms are thinking of the virtual corporation where many of their processes are linked to their customers and suppliers. Once they begin thinking in this way, they soon understand that to fully realize leanness they will need to apply the concept of pull production to their customers and suppliers in one virtual supply chain (lean supply chain). The benefits of doing this will be so compelling that firms will increasingly move in that direction. The Internet is a perfect tool for accomplishing the lean supply chain with its open, easy, and cheap access. Previous attempts to computerize the supply chain using ERP and EDI have been limited by the closed, proprietary, and costly nature of those systems as well as the limitations of the HTML computer language. There are, of course, many obstacles to accomplishing the virtual supply chain, but none of these is insurmountable. Another force that will drive the movement to an Internet-linked supply chain is the increasing globalization of business. There are very few companies that do not have some international customers and suppliers, and they will increasingly find that they need to improve communications and coordinate planning with these global supply chain partners. Although nothing can substitute for face-to-face contact for many types of business dealings, the Internet can supplement direct with virtual contacts allowing much more information transmittal globally, in real time. Coordination of new product development, production planning, and inventory management will be more feasible with greater possibilities for driving inventory out of the system, a key goal of lean production. Some of the disadvantages of global supply networks will become less formidable as collaboration increases because of the Web. There is huge potential to benefit from being e-lean in global supply chains.