شبکه های تولید و زنجیره تامین: چشم انداز استراتژی عملیات
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|12213||2003||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7902 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Omega, Volume 31, Issue 1, February 2003, Pages 29–39
The purpose of this paper is to analyze manufacturing networks and supply chains from an operations strategy perspective. These two areas have traditionally been treated as separate research tracks, but with the ongoing globalization of markets and operations there is a need to integrate these complementary disciplines to study networks of facilities. In this paper we examine the two researc
The fact that business today is international is indisputable. During the last decade there has been an explosive increase in both international trade and foreign direct investment, and many markets are now truly global. The role of manufacturing companies has changed from supplying domestic markets with products, via supplying international markets through export, to supply international markets through local manufacturing. Hence, the research on international issues in manufacturing has evolved from global sales and marketing into global manufacturing. Except from making competition even fiercer, the trend of globalization has changed the ways of providing customers with products and therefore also the objects that are analyzed, be it the company, the manufacturing network, or the supply chain. As a result of globalization, the vast majority of manufacturing in large companies is carried out in value networks. We regard a value network as a network of facilities, possibly owned by different organizations, where time, place or shape utility is added to a good in various stages such that the value for the ultimate customer is increased. However, the manufacturing related activities and issues in the network are viewed from different angles. This can be exemplified by two major research tracks—manufacturing network research and supply chain research—both focusing on the value network, but using different approaches. Manufacturing networks theory stems from the operations management field whereas the logistics management perspective dominates supply chain theory. The aim of this paper is to analyze how the structure of value networks is treated in the two research tracks respectively. The history of each track affects how the network is viewed upon and which activities that are analyzed. Research on manufacturing networks has its roots in the manufacturing management of the single factory, resulting in that scholars tend to study the network as a wholly owned and internal network where all facilities are under full financial control. Conversely, research on supply chains from a logistics perspective tends to analyze the network as an external network with facilities owned by different organizations. Logistics research furthermore sets out from its roots in physical distribution and materials management and focus on the links between the nodes (and to some extent distribution nodes), whereas manufacturing network research tend to focus on the (manufacturing) nodes themselves. These different points of view are visualized in Fig. 1.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This research has analyzed manufacturing network theory and supply chain theory from an operations strategy perspective. A difference in locus of each respective perspective was identified. Research on manufacturing networks has used an intra-firm operations management perspective, focusing on configuration and coordination of manufacturing sites in terms of general strategy, process technology, information systems, transfer of knowledge, etc. Suppliers and customers are only considered with an external interface concerning material and information flows. In other words, manufacturing network research is mainly interested in the manufacturing nodes in the network and not necessarily in the transactions between them. Logistics research on supply chains has, on the other hand, mainly focused on managing material and information flows, as well as financial flows, between sites. Technology transfer, parallel production and product allocation are seldom regarded. In this sense, supply chain research is mainly interested in the links between the nodes in the value network. In our analysis of differences and similarities between manufacturing network and supply chain theory, we take an operations strategy perspective, focusing on two structural decision categories; facilities and vertical integration. The facility issues are closely related to the manufacturing network theory and the configuration of networks, whereas vertical integration policy areas correspond to supply chain theory and the coordination issues of the network. The coordination of the network is contingent upon the network configuration. We exemplified this relationship with two matrices, one showing typical configurations of value networks and the other showing the corresponding type of coordination. In summary, we have highlighted the differences between manufacturing network and supply chain theory, and have suggested a way to integrate the two research areas. Interesting areas for future research are, for example, to further analyze the issues of configuration and coordination of networks, to analyze network hierarchies (networks, organization, sites, plants, production processes), and to develop inter-firm network strategies.