گذار به استقلال: تفاوت های جنسی در توسعه اجتماعی و رفتاری دلفین های بطری وحشی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|124483||2017||17 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Animal Behaviour, Volume 129, July 2017, Pages 43-59
Sex differences in adult behaviour are well documented, but less is known about the ontogeny of these differences. In mammals, the transition to independence, from infancy to the juvenile period, is when these sex differences are likely to become prominent. Here, we examined sex differences in behavioural development among calf and juvenile bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops aduncus, from 2 years preweaning to 2 years postweaning and whether these differences were consistent, or not, with three nonmutually exclusive hypotheses regarding the function of the juvenile period: the social skills, protection/safety and energy allocation hypothesis. All hypotheses received some support, but strikingly so for females. First, sex differences in the nature and quality of juvenile social bonds appear to foreshadow adult association patterns. Juveniles had a greater proportion of same-sex associates than calves. Second, although neither sex increased their number of associates from infancy to juvenility, a pattern that might mitigate predation risk, avoidance between juveniles and adult males suggests that both sexes reduce the likelihood of conspecific aggression. This pattern was more marked for juvenile females. Third, females, but not males, increased foraging rates from late infancy to the early juvenile period, even surpassing typical adult female foraging rates. This is likely related to the future energetic demands of maternal investment and skill development required for specialized foraging tactics, which are female biased in this population. This study provides a first step towards understanding the transition into independence for cetaceans, insight into how sex differences develop and a glimpse into the function of the juvenile period.