مواد غذایی در گردشگری : جاذبه و موانع
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|127||2004||24 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8546 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Annals of Tourism Research, Volume 31, Issue 4, October 2004, Pages 755–778
The common perception of food as a mere attraction in tourism is challenged by stressing the complications and impediments experienced by tourists in the local culinary sphere in unfamiliar destinations, even when attracted to the local cuisine. Hygiene standards, health considerations, communication gaps, and the limited knowledge of tourists concerning the local cuisine are discussed, while the role of ethnic restaurants at home in preparing tourists for the food abroad is questioned. The various ways in which culinary establishments mediate between the tourists and the local cuisine are described. The authenticity of dishes in such establishments and the varieties of culinary experience are considered.
At an international conference dedicated to “Local Food and Tourism”, held in Cyprus in November 2000, an overwhelming majority of papers was dedicated to local food as an attraction in different destinations (Leu, 2000, Skinner, 2000 and van Westering, Poria and Liapis, 1996). None of the scholars present suggested that the confrontation with strange local food might also constitute a problem for the tourists. The only issue that did raise some concern was that of health and hygiene standards in certain destinations (Chikhaoui, 2000, Duke, 2000 and Per-Anders, 2000), but the prevailing attitude was that such problems are temporary and can be easily resolved. Most of the papers at this conference dealt with the culinary practices of West European tourists visiting destinations in their own countries or in the same region, such as France, the United Kingdom, Denmark, or Sweden. The most “exotic” and remote destinations discussed were Cyprus and Greece which, according to Herzfeld are “aboriginal European” cultures (1987:49), as well as Tunisia. However, the eating practices at the conference itself seemed to contradict some of the assumptions and claims made by the participants. The lunches provided at the conference were served in the hotel’s dining room and featured a potpourri of Greek, Cypriot, and West European dishes. The organizers told the second author of this paper that it was “easier, quicker, and more convenient to eat in the hotel”, and that the varied buffet allowed for each participant to choose according to his own taste and preferences. In the evenings, the participants ate in the vicinity of the hotel, in the tourism strip of Larnaka, and chose dishes from Italian, French, German, and English menus. Only two meals were taken at a local restaurant or “taverna”, both of which were clearly tourism-oriented, featuring English menus and English speaking waiters. On both occasions, the food was chosen by the Cypriot hosts. A quick survey among the participants revealed that most of the participants did not eat independently even once in a local restaurant that was not tourism-oriented. Clearly, even for experts in the field, “local food” becomes acceptable only if it is to some extent transformed. This transformation is the principal concern of this article. The study of food, eating, and culinary institutions became a burgeoning subfield of sociological and anthropological research in recent years (Beardsworth and Keil, 1996, Bell and Valentine, 1997, Fine, 1996, Lupton, 1996, MacClancy, 1992, Mennell, Murcott and van Otterloo, 1992, Warde, 1996, Warde and Martens, 2000 and Watson, 1996). However, while the relations between tourism and different aspects of the culture at the destinations—such as art, religion, and sexuality—were thoroughly studied by researchers of tourism, the interface between tourism and food was, until recently, neglected by scholars of both tourism and food. In the promotional literature, the cuisine of touristic destinations is widely advertised. Indeed, the few publications on food in tourism mostly deal with it as a significant attraction (Hjalager and Richards 2002). There are hardly any detailed studies of the actual eating practices of tourists, or of the processes of transformation of local culinary establishments in course of the penetration of a locality by tourism (Reynolds 1993). The purpose of this article is twofold. First, it presents the two facets of “local food” in destinations: as an attraction and as an impediment, suggesting that the problem of producing nutritious, hygienic, accessible, and culturally acceptable food to tourists is more complicated than what might be assumed from promotional brochures or magazines. Second, it examines the mechanisms through which this problem is dealt with by local culinary establishments and the tourism industry, showing that these mechanisms evolve along similar lines as in the domain of tourist arts (Cohen, 1992 and Cohen, 2000). While the existing literature is mainly concerned with the gastronomic offerings in Western and some other, touristically developed, destinations, this article focuses on destinations in East and Southeast Asia, whose culinary cultures differ markedly from those the tourists are used to in their countries of origin. Particularly, it is concerned with Western tourists who seek to eat local food rather than on those who merely seek fare familiar from home, since the case of the former exposes more radically the intricate impediments faced by tourists when dealing with the cuisine at strange destinations. The examples are taken mainly from observations on West Europeans and Israelis traveling individually or in tour-groups in China, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data are derived from more than two decades of extensive research on tourism in Thailand by one of the authors, and more than 10 years of experience in guiding tour-groups and a year of intensive anthropological fieldwork focused on Vietnamese foodways, by the other.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Despite its considerable importance, the role and meaning of food in tourism has been surprisingly little discussed in the sociological literature. The principal aim of this article was to propose an approach to the topic by integrating some such culinary notions in culinary sociology with conceptions of the sociology of tourism. This article has departed from the general tension between the attraction and repulsion of novelty in food, to analyze the dilemmas faced by tourists in unfamiliar culinary situations at their destinations. The principal line of the presentation was to deal first with the variety of constraints experienced in such situations, and then turn to the different ways by which culinary establishments facilitate the overcoming of those constraints. The article has shown how they provide a “culinary environmental bubble” to tourists. However, through this process aspects of the local cuisine are, to different degrees, filtered and transformed, thus making local dishes accessible to tourists. In the process a tourist cuisine frequently emerges, which, like tourist arts, is not just an impoverished variant of local food, but often features innovative dishes, creatively composed of elements from different origins. The analysis related primarily to Western tourists’ encounters with Third World cuisines, with which they may be only superficially acquainted at home and to which they are generally positively disposed. This article did not deal extensively with Western tourism to other Western countries, with whose cuisines tourists might be considerably more familiar. It is surmised that in such cases the various constraints dealt with in this article will be less salient when making the local food more directly accessible to tourists. This way, they will be less dependent on the intermediation of a “culinary environmental bubble”. Consequently, such cuisines will undergo fewer adaptations or transformations under the impact of tourism than those with which the tourists are less familiar. The existing literature on the topic (Hjalager and Richards 2002), by focusing on Western tourism to well-developed Western destinations, overemphasizes food as an attraction, while remaining mostly oblivious to its role as an impediment in less developed areas. This article has purposely abstained from a systematic consideration of the culinary aspects of Asian tourism in Western countries. This is a topic in need of separate analysis, since it cannot be dealt with as a simple obverse of the preceding presentation. The cuisines of Asian countries have not been penetrated by outside influences to the same extent as the Western ones. Consequently, Asians abroad tend to be less disposed than Westerners to partake of the food of others, and are more dependent than the latter on establishments providing their own national cuisines. In the case of major national groups of Asian tourists, such as the Japanese, this predilection for their own food means that they will be reluctant to visit a given destination in significant numbers, unless it features restaurants serving their national cuisine. The paper here has done no more than outline a systematic approach to the study of the place of food in tourism. Only comparative empirical research, focusing on the issues touched upon, will show the usefulness of the approach and indicate ways for its further elaboration.■A