پیچیدگی مدیریت فناوری: تجزیه و تحلیل نظری و موردکاوی بخش خودرو در ژاپن
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|13005||2000||16 صفحه PDF||26 صفحه WORD|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Volume 64, Issue 1, May 2000, Pages 39–54
مدیریت فناوری به عنوان موقعیت پیچیده تصمیمگیری
شکل 1. جداسازی پیچیدگی. منبع: براساس فلاد (1988) .
ابعاد حساس پیچیدگی فزاینده در ارتباط با مدیریت فناوری
شکل 2. دستهبندی سیستمهای پیچیده.
ب. پیچیدگی درونی
پ. تضاد منافع
الف. مدل تکاملی
ب. مدل سیستمی، نقش اجزاء اصلی
ت. اهمیت ظرفیت ادغام سیستم
ث. جستجو و یادگیری
مورد بخش خودروسازی ژاپن
موضوعهای پیشروی خودروسازان ژاپنی
ب. محیط زیست و انرژی
پ. کیفیت، رانندگی راحت
تاثیرات اجتماعی و تنظیمی
جدول 1. مقررات جدید و عاملهای اجتماعی
الف. شرکت تویوتا
شکل 3. فناوریهای مربوط به ایمنی.
ت. میتسوبیشی موتورز
نتایج تحلیل دادههای حق اختراع
تغییرات زمانی دادهها درباره درصد حق اختراع
تحلیل دادههای حقاختراع
شکل 4. فناوریهای مربوط به محیطزیست
شکل 5. فناوریهای مربوط به کیفیت
ب. محیط زیست
پ. کیفیت و رانندگی راحت
علل افزایش پیچیدگی
In this article, a theoretical analysis on the various issues related to technology management under growing complexity is provided. We put forward a model classifying complex situations, including technology management on a two dimensional space, i.e., object-related and human-related complexity. The point on the grid depends on factors related to external and internal complexity as well as conflict of interests by the actors. By analyzing complexity involved in technology management using this framework, we may extract crucial dimensions of technology management. Finally, we provide a case study on the strategies of the Japanese automobile sector, by mainly focusing on the technological perspective. The chosen companies were Toyota, Nissan, Honda, Mitsubishi Motors, and Mazda. The factors related to the growing complexity in technology management were both technological and non-technological in nature. An analysis of the rate and direction of competence building based on patent data confirmed that the companies have been building competences in key areas related to safety, environment, and driving comfort over a decade to meet changing social expectations and environmental pressures. The analysis shows that the automobile sector has been undergoing radical changes due to growing internal and external complexity.
Many industries are undergoing radical transformations due to mega-competition taking place on a global scale. Technological changes are becoming primary drivers, creating ambiguity in the definition of domain of businesses. Furthermore, the speed at which changes are taking place is putting pressure on firms to act with increasing timeliness. But, growing complexity due to a variety of reasons is a major cause of concern for decision-makers in industries as well as policy makers. Technology strategy or technology management under growing complexity must be put on the agenda for decision-makers. At the firm (company) level, strategic technology management must deal with a high level of uncertainty which is not only technical in nature. It will have to take into account a range of factors, such as techno-paradigm shifts, growing socio-economic and external pressures for change, management of diverse range of knowledge bases, and a strong linkage with other areas of competence in the firm. In addition, consideration for global standards and intellectual properties becomes a pressing agenda. In the following section, we discuss the notion of complexity and propose a model classifying complex situations in two dimensions, taking into account various factors such as uncertainty, complexity, and conflict of interests. Finally, we discuss the case of the automobile sector in Japan, mainly focusing on complexity from the technical perspective.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this article, we discussed the factors related to the growing complexity in technology management, which were both technological and non-technological in nature. This article started out by discussing the concept of complexity. We were able to formulate a model analyzing complex situations in two dimensional form composed of object complexity and human related complexity. We then pointed out some crucial factors which characterize the two dimensions of complexity involved in technology strategy/management at the firm level. We then tried to combine elements of several models to build a framework for analysis, namely the evolutionary model, the systemic model, techno-economic networks, the role of learning and system integration competence. An analysis of the Japanese automobile sector confined mainly to technological complexity, confirmed that companies have been building competence in key areas related to safety, environment, and driving comfort over a long time, to meet changing social expectations and environmental pressures. In some areas, particularly such as environment and safety, competence building was influenced by new regulations. Automobile companies are facing growing complexity due to various factors such as energy paradigm shifts, new regulations regarding safety and the environment, and market related uncertainties. Even in the case of the automobile sector, which can be classified as one based on mass production and hence not classified as a “complex product system CoPS” , it has been shown that it is undergoing radical changes due to growing complexity. Companies are having to form alliances with firms across industrial boundaries. Recommendations for corporate policy makers would be to detect forthcoming new regulations and societal changes well in advance and at the same time, to build up technological competences over a long period in generic technologies and key components. Companies must succeed in achieving systemic innovations and this requires other areas of competences to be strengthened.