سیستم نوآوری ملی، قابلیت و توسعه اقتصادی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|13523||2008||19 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||12450 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Research Policy, Volume 37, Issue 9, October 2008, Pages 1417–1435
This paper focuses on the role of capabilities in economic development. In recent years, the quality and availability of data on different aspects of development have improved, and this provides new opportunities for investigating the reasons behind the large differences in economic development. Using factor analysis on data for 25 indicators and 115 countries between 1992 and 2004, we identify four different types of “capabilities”: the development of the “innovation system”, the quality of “governance”, the character of the “political system” and the degree of “openness” of the economy. Innovation systems and governance are shown to be of particular importance for economic development.
Not long ago most economists believed that differences in development levels across countries were to be explained by one single factor, namely differences in the amount of accumulated capital per worker (Solow, 1956, see Fagerberg, 1994 for an overview). However, from the 1960s onwards the idea that differences in development are mainly caused by technological differences received increasing support (Gerschenkron, 1962). This view was, of course, consistent with the perspective on growth developed by Schumpeter, 1934 and Schumpeter, 1943, and during the 1980s a lot of new work on cross-country differences in levels of development and growth performance inspired by this perspective emerged (Freeman et al., 1982, Fagerberg, 1987, Fagerberg, 1988, Dosi et al., 1990 and Verspagen, 1991). The focus on technology as the driving force of growth and development has also been taken up by advocates of the so-called “new growth theory” (Lucas, 1988, Romer, 1990 and Aghion and Howitt, 1992).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In recent years, the quality and availability of data on different aspects of development have improved, and this might give researchers in this area new opportunities for investigating the reasons behind the large differences in economic performance across countries. Based on a review of the existing theoretical and empirical literature and an extensive search for available data sources this paper has, with the help of factor analysis, identified a set of “capabilities” which – following (one or more of) the theoretical perspectives that have been advanced in this area – should be assumed to be of critical importance for catch-up: The development of the “innovation system”. The quality of “governance”. The character of the “political system”. The degree “openness” to trade and foreign direct investment.