نرم افزار مدیریت ورزشی جدید: تجزیه و تحلیل نیازها توسط هیئتی از کارشناسان اسپانیایی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|13577||2008||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5850 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Information Management, Volume 28, Issue 4, August 2008, Pages 235–245
This study sought to investigate the requirements of technology management tools for Spanish sport managers, in order to improve the quality of management in sports organisations and facilities. We hypothesised that current sport management computer software programmes do not adequately satisfy the manager's needs. This hypothesis was tested with an analysis by a panel of Spanish experts in the field of sports management. The results of this study indicated that these professionals are in need of a new computer software programme specifically tailored for their use. In this paper, we provide important information regarding the critical elements that need to be included within such a product.
Our evolving “socio-sport” environment has resulted in management of sporting installations becoming an increasingly complex process. There is growing competition within this field and increasing emphasis is being placed on providing high quality sport and recreation services. Individuals working within this area are required to possess a broader knowledge base than before and are therefore in need of management tools, such as customised computer software, that can further assist them in the workplace (Gallardo, 2005). There have been significant technological advances in this area in recent years (Bernstein, 1998; Hendrickson, 1998; Rofe, 1998) and sporting organisations, like any other business, must stay abreast of these improvements to remain productive (Kahle & Meeske, 1999; Mahony & Howard, 2001). In Spain, the numbers of sport and recreation facilities have grown significantly in recent years through increased interest in both sporting activities and physical activity. According to a national census in 2005, Spain possessed 75,000 sports complexes (facilities devoted to sports and recreation), 160,000 sporting spaces (fields, courts, etc.) and 150 million m2 of space devoted solely to the practice of sport and physical activity (Gallardo, 2007). According to a further recent census in 2005, the number of Spaniards who practiced sport and physical activity regularly was approximately 16.7 million, an increase of 1 million from the previous survey in 2000 (García-Ferrando, 2006). These values are likely to increase further, given Spain's steadily growing population (INE, 2006). The same trend is occurring internationally. In France, Spain's neighbour and co-member of the European Union, the number of people belonging to a sport organisation has increased from 15% in 1980 to more than 21% today, and approximately 36 million people participated in sporting activities in 2002 (Bayle, 2005), over 60% of the French population (Richet-Mastain, 2007). In the United States, the cost of construction of sporting facilities now exceeds US$ 16, an increase of approximately 800% in the last decade (Mahony & Howard, 2001). Some economists have warned that these investments will not produce the expected economic returns (Noll & Zimbalist, 1997; Rosentraub, 1997). Therefore, effective management of these sporting facilities is a particularly important challenge within the sport and physical activity sector in the coming years. Given the above information, it is hardly surprising that interest in professional management of sport and recreation facilities is growing rapidly, with increasing demands for training and technological support at various levels. New professionals within this field are now confronted with a job that requires knowledge and understanding of numerous areas, including sports legislation, economics, human resources, facility maintenance, and equipment and installation management, etc. (see Fig. 1). The increasing consumer demand for efficient and high quality services is also a driving force for improvement of management services and businesses within our sector. Those businesses that are able to satisfy these demands will clearly be more successful in this market (Dorado, 2005; Pfeffer, 2001). Kaynak and Hartley (2005) have identified several factors associated with successful management, including: high quality product/design, effective process management, and efficient employee and customer relations. To confront the challenges and necessities of our changing times, any sport management organisation, whether private or public, must ensure that their internal management model is of high quality which in turn will assist in promoting optimal quality of service (Cano & Cano, 2006). Quality management practices can enhance businesses by improving operational performance, reducing costs, increasing sales and improving overall efficiency and profitability (Handfield, Ghosh, & Fawcett, 1998; Sousa & Voss, 2002). At present, the sport management area within Spain does not possess adequate systems, services or software technologies that accomplish the requirements outlined above. Moreover, knowledge and training is also lacking in this area and research within this field has been scarce. There is an urgent need for development of efficient technological tools that satisfy the requirements of those working within this area, such as computer management software designed specifically for sporting facilities. In this paper, we describe guidelines that will assist in the process of developing an efficient software programme for sports facilities and managers who strive to offer high quality services to their clients.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this study, we attempted to describe the desirable characteristics of a new software programme for sports facilities and managers, through group discussion of experts in this field. Our results confirm that Spanish professionals working in the area of sports management feel that there is a need for new computer technologies and programmes to assist them in their work. Currently, there are no adequate technological tools available in this field. Overall, three general areas can be identified which need to be addressed in the development of new software: 1. Information and electronic documentation concerning rules and conditions in each relevant area (materials and infrastructure, maintenance, users, human resources, safety, etc.). 2. Work protocols for more efficient time management and organisation of resources. 3. Systematic and automated management of the sporting installation (data bases, reservations, use of facilities, etc.). The software programmes commonly used within the area of sport management in Spain have focussed exclusively on clients, with little regard to areas such as human resources and material resources. All aspects of the business must be addressed if optimal management efficiency and quality is the goal (Crossan, Lane, & White, 1999; Gallardo, 2002; Jones & Hendry, 1994; Ulrich, Jick, & Von Glinow, 1993). From our results, we suggest that eight areas must be incorporated into software designed for management of sports installations: (1) facility and equipment maintenance; (2) management of users (clients); (3) management of employees; (4) accounting control; (5) control of complaints and incidents; (6) strategic planning of the centre (objectives); (7) quality control (protocols) and (8) accessibility. Within the above areas, specific needs have been identified in previously published work (Dorado & Gallardo, 2005; Gallardo & Jiménez, 2004; Senlle, Gallardo, & Dorado, 2004). These eight areas take in the vast majority of functions in daily sports management, and also the skills that sports managers should possess. Several authors (Ramos, Tordera, & Martínez-Tur, 1995; Van Hoecke & De Knop, 2006) have established the main spheres of management as follows: financial-administrative; personnel; facilities maintenance; planning; supply of services and activities; and marketing and promotion. Jaimeson (1987) grouped together 112 skills of the sports manager into 12 areas: (1) management; (2) communication; (3) programming (programming skills); (4) administration; (5) management techniques; (6) facility maintenance; (7) legal issues; (8) policy (philosophy); (9) research; (10) safety/accident prevention; (11) events organisation and (12) monitoring. Lambrecht (1987) maintained that the duties of sports club managers varied according to the category and size of the club, in the following areas: (1) budget preparation; (2) resource allocation; (3) communication with customers, members, etc.; (4) decision-making; (5) employee assessment; (6) employee motivation; (7) infrastructure maintenance; (8) customer complaint management; (9) employee hiring; (10) organising and holding sports events; (11) communication with the staff and (12) staff supervision. Thus, the benefits of this incorporation are numerous, as they combine all the requirements currently seen as necessary or unsatisfactory. Numerous studies have shown that by improving their software tools, companies are improving quality and reaping good financial returns (Hendricks & Singhal, 1997; Koufaris, 2002; Liao, Palvia, & Hong-Nan, 2006). The biggest obstacles and costs involved in the incorporation of new software might be the time taken to adapt to the new tool, in terms of both the staff that are expected to use it and its tailoring to each facility and sports organisation, as it would combine a good many new functions hitherto unused by current management software. Furthermore, organisations need to be made aware of the need for change in new information technologies, in order to keep searching for success, quality and excellence in management (Senlle et al., 2004). The principal areas that should be focused are as follows: 1. Facility and equipment maintenance (material resources) Within the area of material resources, sports management software must include sections relating to infrastructure (inclusion of modules regarding legislation/rules as they relate to facility construction, accessibility, etc.), renewable materials (including technical information concerning selection of products, inventory and control of available material), maintenance (standardised work protocols regarding maintenance, activity planning, etc.), safety and quality (criteria regarding evaluation and quality control), and accounting (programmes for control of expenses and payments). 2. Management of users (users/external clients) Within this general area, the following areas are important: management of reservations (for more efficient management of the facilities and activities, access control), monitoring of user satisfaction (questionnaires, monitoring of suggestions and complaints, etc.), database of important documents (list of services, rights and obligations of the user, internal rules, etc.), use of the facilities (amount if use of the facilities and activities, statistics regarding use by different segments of the population, etc.) and economic control of users (invoices and charges via e-mail, for example). 3. Management of employees (human resources) Within this area of the organisation, the software should include the following: professional records (recording of tasks performed, follow-up of activities performed, incident registry, etc.), job description templates (worker manuals, protocols regarding job responsibilities, etc.), training plan (necessary training required for each professional position), management of the labour force (control of worker timetables, absenteeism, substitutions and incidents), registry of activities (coordination and control of employees), flow charts (of the organisation and all departments) and an employment bureau feature (registry of potential workers according to professional profile). Finally, it is essential that the software is a flexible and personalisable tool as it will be used for various purposes by individuals with widely differing academic backgrounds. Ease of use is important for those who have less experience with computer information systems (Yang, Ghauri, & Sonmez, 2005). Fig. 2 is a schematic summary of the requirements of the software programme. In summary, managers of sports organisations and facilities in Spain are in need of a new computer software programme specifically tailored for their use. We have gathered information from a number of Spanish experts within this area regarding the critical elements that need to be included within such a product. A new sports management software programme may also have useful applications in other countries.