به سوی موفقیت : الگوبرداری گردشگری پایدار بین کشوری
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|1359||2012||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Tourism Management, Volume 33, Issue 5, October 2012, Pages 1044–1056
Given the complexity of the issues surrounding the concept of sustainable tourism, the current paper tries to provide a unified methodology to assess tourism sustainability, based on a number of quantitative indicators. The proposed methodological framework (Sustainable Tourism Benchmarking Tool – STBT) will provide a number of benchmarks against which the sustainability of tourism activities in various countries can be assessed. A model development procedure is proposed: identification of the dimensions (economic, socio-ecologic, infrastructure) and indicators, method of scaling, chart representation and evaluation on three Asian countries. This application to three countries shows us that a similar level of tourism activity might bring on different sorts of improvements to implement in the tourism activity and might have different consequences for the socio-ecological environment. The heterogeneity of developing countries exposed in the STBT is useful to detect the main problem that each country faces in their tourism sector.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Based on the extent to which it has been quantified and discussed in cross-country analyses, the concept of sustainable tourism is still considered to be in its infancy. The current paper tried to fill this gap by providing a simple methodology to assess tourism sustainability, based on a number of quantitative indicators. The proposed methodological framework would allow the creation of a comprehensive database against which the sustainability of tourism activities in various countries can be assessed. The STBT methodology developed in this paper relies on quantitative indicators that are policy-relevant and, as such, it is hoped that it will become a useful tool for decision-makers, researchers and businesses involved in tourism activities in developing countries. The usefulness of the STBT methodology is illustrated by using three case studies: Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. While the STBT methodology used in this paper may need further refinement and elaboration, the results and findings obtained suggest that the STBT can become a valuable tool for researchers and policymakers involved in the assessment and design of sustainable tourism strategies. This illustration shows us that an equal level of tourism activity might induce different sorts of improvements and might have different consequences on development. Some countries therefore need to increase the number of tourists’ arrivals, while others have to extend length of stay or receipts per tourists. Furthermore, the STBT can be extended to other fields linked to tourism activity, in particular by expanding the analysis of leakages. Here, we have connected in the same analysis, the relation of tourism industry to the broader economy (wide impact), and we have also surrounded the leakages problem. While some countries have to increase the linkage of the tourism industry with the rest of the economy, other countries have to ensure that those linkages benefit national sectors given the large amount of leakage. Finally, we tie this economic sustainability to the socio-ecological sustainability to detect the present or future main problems that appear with tourism development in developing country. The main advantage in following this methodology is that grouping many countries into one analytical toolbox is relevant and does not remove the heterogeneity aspect, contrary to Ko (2005) argument. Indeed, the heterogeneity of developing countries is useful to detect the main problems of each country in their tourism activity. Therefore, The STBT could form a solid basis for a rigorous analysis that could shed further light on the main problems detected by conducting country specific studies by following a consistent methodology that allows comparability of results across tourist destinations.