بررسی ماهیت تجارب گردشگری به یاد ماندنی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|136||2011||20 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9188 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Annals of Tourism Research, Volume 38, Issue 4, October 2011, Pages 1367–1386
The concept of the tourism experience has become a focal point for current tourism research and management. While academic studies are increasingly examining tourism as a function of memorable experiences (ME), more research most be done to uncover the essence of what exactly makes certain experiences special, spectacular, and fittingly, memorable. This study sought to explore the essence of MEs based on research from the field of psychology, with a view to understanding the cognitive processes that impede individuals from paying attention to their experiences, as well as the conceptual processes of memory formation and retention. In-depth interviews revealed four key dimensions of MEs: affect, expectations, consequentiality and recollection. Finally, we propose several avenues for future research on MEs.
A recent editorial by the Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Hospitality Management has driven home perhaps the most fundamental characteristic of the phenomenon we call “tourism”; namely, the delivery of positive experiences to tourists. Pizam has gone one step further, when he stated that “creating memorable experiences is the essence and the raison d’etre of the hospitality industry” (2010, p. 343). Given the importance that foregoing statement attributes to memorable experiences (ME) in hospitality and tourism, it is encouraging that previous research has been done to provide an in-depth understanding of this key concept. For example, Gunter (1987) identified a variety of properties common to leisure experiences based on written reports of MEs. Additionally, research has commonly considered tourists’ positive MEs with outcome factors such as revisiting a destination and spreading positive word-of-mouth (Woodside, Caldwell, & Albers-Miller, 2004). Managerially, destination management organizations have credited the delivery of MEs as fundamental to competitiveness and sustainability (Ritchie & Crouch, 2003). Despite the widespread focus and acknowledgement of the importance of MEs, more research must be done to uncover the specific elements—that is, the essence—of what exactly makes certain experiences special, spectacular, and fittingly, memorable. For instance, although many studies have examined memory as the outcome of experiences, what exactly are the basic building blocks of memory itself? Furthermore, what are the triggers for those memories and the conceptual underpinnings that facilitate the formation and retention of those experiences? What are the methodological challenges in memory research? Managerially, how can industry practitioners facilitate tourism experiences that are particularly memorable? It was with these concerns in mind that we pursued the following objectives. In the present study, we began by summarizing the wealth of literature on tourism experiences. This is divided into three sub-sections: first, research on tourism authenticity is explored as we considered this area as an appropriate entry point into tourism experiences given its prominence as a reoccurring theme in the last several decades. Next, scholarship on satisfactory tourism experiences is discussed as we deemed it to have initiated considerable academic interest in many other facets of the experience literature. Finally, the link between management and experiences is described with a focus on industry applications. In the next part of this study, extant literature on MEs is examined from a psychological standpoint. We began with an investigation of the link between tourism experiences and memory in the context of various research and methodological considerations (i.e., storytelling and memory-work). Next, we examined core psychology on mindlessness which provides a foundational basis in understanding the cognitive processes that impede individuals from paying attention to their experiences. Finally, we explored the conceptual underpinnings of autobiographical memory—its formation processes and factors that affect memory retention. By integrating research in psychology with our understanding of tourism experiences, we sought to understand the essence of what constitutes an experience that is especially memorable, and to ultimately consider the difficult, yet highly important issue of how to facilitate MEs. While there is currently no consensus in the academic literature as to the exact definition of tourism experiences, many scholars have provided insights into various definitional components. For example, Pine and Gilmore (1998) focused on the emotional, physical, spiritual, and intellectual impressions that are felt by individuals during an event. Clawson and Knetsch (1966) incorporated the influences and personal outcomes that begin before the trip and after the tourist returns from the destination. Still, others focused on the roles of authenticity (Wang, 1999) and serendipitous moments (Cary, 2004). In consideration of these different definitional approaches, in this study, we defined tourism experiences as: “An individual’s subjective evaluation and undergoing (i.e., affective, cognitive, and behavioural) of events related to his/her tourist activities which begins before (i.e., planning and preparation), during (i.e., at the destination), and after the trip (i.e., recollection).” We further assert that the central role of tourism planners is to: “Facilitate the development of an environment (i.e., the destination) that enhances the likelihood that tourists can create their own memorable tourism experiences.” In brief, it is our view that due to the highly personal nature of the tourism experience, destination managers cannot directly deliver MEs to tourists since individuals recall experiences subjectively and uniquely even though tourism planners may have provided objectively equivalent services, events, and activities. Thus, it is our goal to understand the underlying essence of MEs so that tourism planners can enhance the probability of delivering to tourists those experiences that are special, cherished and truly memorable.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study contributes to ongoing efforts in tourism scholarship to understand the essence of tourists’ MEs. A review of the literature in authenticity, satisfactory experiences, and experience-management provided a detailed treatment of the scholarship that has preceded our interest in experiences while an investigation of literature in storytelling and memory-work described the methodological considerations in memory research. Additionally, literature in mindlessness-mindfulness and autobiographical memory was reviewed with an aim of understanding the triggers for, and the conceptual underpinnings that facilitate the formation and retention of memories. Qualitative data was gathered and analyzed based on the principles of grounded theory. Four dimensions which represent aspects of experiences that enable them to be particularly memorable were found: affect, expectations, consequentiality, and recollection. Recommendations were provided for practitioners into the actions that they could take to increase the likelihood for tourists to develop MEs. Overall, we hope that this study will further inspire interest in the important subject of MEs and encourage practitioners to facilitate the development of MEs that tourists will remember for years to come