سوابق و پیامدهای ناشی از ارزش لجستیک : بررسی تجربی در بازار اسپانیا
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|1379||2010||14 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 39, Issue 3, April 2010, Pages 493–506
In business practice and the academic study of logistics, the incorporation of concepts such as quality followed by value has been truly revolutionary. In addition, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) has substantially modified the way inter-company relationships are managed. This has meant that logistics is no longer considered a routine, merely operational activity but a strategic variable which is a deciding factor in achieving customer satisfaction. There are, however, still a large number of companies which continue to ignore the differentiating potential of logistics and consider it to be a routine activity. Our contribution comes within the framework of this new perspective which is analysed on the basis of an emerging concept: logistics value. The objective of this study is to contribute to the knowledge on what logistics value consists of and how it is formed, in business to business (B2B) relationships in particular. On the basis of a theoretical framework obtained from the literature review of perceived value from a trade-off perspective, we carry out an empirical analysis to determine the antecedents and consequences of logistics value. Our results, through SEM analysis show that ICT, the benefits derived from supplier–customer relationship, logistics service quality and the sacrifices associated to logistics service delivery in terms of costs, contribute to creating logistics value which is the antecedent to the classic satisfaction–loyalty chain.
The study of “logistics value” is currently in the early stages of development. In recent years, several studies have used this term (Novack et al., 1992, Novack et al., 1995, Rutner and Langley, 2000 and Stank et al., 2003) and recognise the capacity of logistics to generate value(Mentzer et al., 2004a, Mentzer et al., 2004b and Ballou, 2004), however, very few studies define its content or analyse its determining factors and formation process (Rutner & Langley, 2000). Similarly, there is a clear need for in-depth study of logistics from the sphere of inter-organisational relationship (Lambert et al., 2004, Knemeyer and Murphy, 2004, Knemeyer and Murphy, 2005 and Foggin et al., 2004) as the generalised use of information and communication technologies (ICT) has led to a deep transformation. Specifically, logistics activities such as stock or order management, storage and transport make use of the new opportunities ICT provide to articulate new types of inter-organisational relationship. In this context, and from the tradition of studying perceived value as trade-off, we aim to offer an in-depth analysis of logistics value based on the study of logistics service profit and cost variables and ICT adoption in the context of inter-organisational relationships. We aim to observe how these variables perform as antecedents to logistics value and as the final contribution by logistics to the classical satisfaction–loyalty chain. This relationship between logistics value and satisfaction is one of the most significant contributions of our study. In accordance with the research into perceived value we complete this consequence chain with a study of the influence of satisfaction with the received logistics service on customer loyalty. The importance of this relationship chain has led us to retain it for future, more in-depth research work. This paper is structured as follows: firstly, we offer a literature review of logistics value, taking the notion of perceived value as the reference framework. Secondly, we analyse the variables which influence value generation in order to define the benefits and costs in logistics services from the trade-off perspective, considering ICT as catalysers for the process. We then present the empirical research objectives and methodology whereby the hypotheses posited in the theoretical framework are accepted or rejected. The analytical results are reported and finally we present the conclusions and implications for research and company managers and the limitations and proposals for continuing this line of research.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This work has presented a sequence of analysis which has allowed us to achieve the initial objectives. Our objective was to contribute to the knowledge on the process of logistics value formation, proposing and testing a conceptual scheme which explored the existing relationships between the determining factors for logistics value, satisfaction and customer response in the context of an inter-organisational relationship in response to the call for research by Parasuraman and Grewal (2000). To do this, we made an initial in-depth study of the logistics value concept. In this sense, from a conceptual point of view and after reviewing the main lines of research where perceived value has traditionally been examined from the trade-off perspective, it was established that logistics value can be defined on the basis of quality and other types of benefits and sacrifices can also be included. There are very few universal measures for evaluating logistics value in the literature, but with the logistics value scale presented here it can be stated that in the sphere of inter-company relations logistics value can be analysed in terms of perceived value (Flint et al., 2002). Both the literature (Novack et al., 1995, Rutner and Langley, 2000, Stank et al., 2003 and Ballou, 2004), and the results derived from the companies in our study coincide in indicating that logistics adds value for customers and provides companies with a clear competitive advantage, and for all companies improving their logistics service was high priority because it was considered a key factor for company success and competitive differentiation. To identify the variables which are most involved in generating logistics value and therefore the ones on which companies should place more emphasis, we have proposed and tested an empirical model. The literature identifies logistics service quality as the main antecedent to logistics value and the first approaches to logistics value even pointed out that quality acts as the only direct antecedent (Novack et al., 1994 and Novack et al., 1995). Our study supports these first conclusions to the extent that the relationship between logistics service quality and logistics value has high significance. Logistics service quality includes the following components: quality of information, the order placing procedure, quality of the contact staff and punctuality, these factors were also identified as relevant in the studies by Mentzer et al. (1999) and Mentzer et al. (2001). In terms of sacrifices, a negative element in the trade-off, the companies interviewed do not perceive that they incur a high sacrifice when making their purchase; on the contrary, they consider that the price paid for the product is fair, that the purchase process from the main supplier is simple and that purchase time is short. These results are confirmed in the causal analysis because the sacrifice has a direct, significant influence on logistics value, although intensity is weak. It is highly possible that this weak influence of sacrifice on logistics value is largely due to the fact that customers prioritise the quality of the logistics service received over the cost. In other words, customers are aware that better logistics service implies a higher cost but this is compensated for by the improvement in the service received. This behaviour would confirm the fact that logistics is no longer seen a mere cost but is perceived as an essential activity for competitive differentiation. Furthermore, these results coincide with those obtained in previous works (e.g. Stank et al., 1998 and Rutner and Langley, 2000). In relation to the benefits derived from intensifying the supplier–customer relationship — the third positive antecedent of logistics value, we can state that the results of our study confirm the recently growing trend towards consolidating supplier–customer relations (Bovel and Martha, 1995 and Bonner and Calantone, 2005). These are solid, stable relations strengthened over time as shown by the fact that the average duration is over 14 years and that the supplier supplies more than a third of the products acquired by the customer. In addition, our study shows that there is a direct relationship between the benefits of intensifying the relationship and logistics value, which, although significant is weaker than other proposed relations. This weakness in the link between the benefits derived from intensifying the relationship and value may perhaps be due to the fact that in the inter-company exchange environment, value is perceived more intensely in cognitive aspects than affective ones (trust, commitment, personal relationships...). This would also explain why logistics service quality is the variable with the most influence on logistics value. Furthermore our study confirms the direct, significant relationship between the benefits derived from intensifying supplier–customer relations and increased logistics service quality. This would imply there is an indirect influence of relationships on logistics value through quality. Both the literature analysed and the results of our work, identify trust (Kent and Mentzer, 2003 and Zabkar and Makovec, 2004), commitment (Kwon & Suh, 2004) and collaboration (Wisner, 2003 and Mentzer et al., 2004b) between the supplier and the customer as key components for intensifying inter-company relationships. The companies analysed have a high degree of trust in their suppliers and in particular the companies associated to ADL. They also point to a strong commitment between the company and the supplier to fulfil the agreements and intensify the relationship. Our results also show flexibility in the execution of agreements and commitments as another relevant variable for maintaining the relationship. Our results do not support, however, the link between the personal relationships of employees involved in the exchange and strengthening relations between companies noted in other studies (e.g. Rutner and Langley, 2000 and Knemeyer et al., 2003). In our sample of companies, the professional dimension is more relevant than the affective dimension. Finally, ICT are a positive antecedent to logistics value, although their influence is indirect through their effect on the other antecedents. Thus it is observed that the introduction and use of ICT can improve the quality of both internal and external information and therefore the quality of the logistics service (Closs et al., 1997 and Sanders and Premus, 2002). Our research has shown that this relationship exists although its influence is not significant due perhaps to the mediator effect of the variable benefits derived from intensifying the relationship. On these lines, applying ICT to the supplier–customer relationship can reduce information distortion and increase transmission speed thus reducing uncertainty and harmonising inter-company relations (Rutner and Langley, 2000, Zhao et al., 2001 and Wisner, 2003). ICT therefore have a direct, positive and significant influence on the intensification of supplier–customer relations and derived benefits. The literature and our results also coincide in indicating that ICT have a direct, positive and significant influence on reducing sacrifices (Manetti, 2001 and Sanders and Premus, 2002). Specifically, transmission and information processing costs can be reduced, tasks simplified and repetitive activities eliminated which in turn leads to a reduction in selling price while also streamlining and reducing the purchase effort. In terms of the consequences of logistics value, the relationship between value and satisfaction and satisfaction and loyalty has been demonstrated in numerous empirical works, especially from the sphere of logistics (e.g. Innis and La Londe, 1994, Mentzer et al., 2001, Stank et al., 2003 and Spiteri and Dion, 2004). The results of our research confirm that management of the logistics function oriented towards generating value does indeed lead to increased satisfaction. The companies studied show a high level of satisfaction with the logistics service offered by their main supplier. They very rarely have problems with their main supplier and if anything does go wrong, it is solved quickly and efficiently. Furthermore the positive, significant relationship between satisfaction and loyalty is also confirmed, loyalty being evaluated from behavioural intention. A high degree of loyalty is observed towards the main supplier which materialises in repurchase intention and recommending the supplier to other companies and a long average duration of the relationship.