نقش های فرعی، ارتباطات عمودی و توسعه اقتصادی: درسهایی از اقتصادهای در حال گذار
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|13888||2009||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8950 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of World Business, Volume 44, Issue 2, April 2009, Pages 167–179
Vertical supply chain linkages between foreign subsidiaries and domestic firms are important mechanisms for knowledge spillovers, contributing to the economic development of host economies. This paper argues that subsidiary roles and technological competences affect the extent of vertical linkages as such as well as their potential for technological spillovers. Using survey evidence from 424 foreign subsidiaries based in transition economies, we tested for the effect of subsidiaries’ autonomy, initiative, technological capability, internal and external technological embeddedness on the extent and intensity of forward and backward vertical linkages. The evidence supports our main argument that the potential of technology diffusion via vertical linkages depends on the nature of subsidiary roles. We discuss the implications for transition as well as other developing countries.
Through technology transfer, spillovers and linkages, multinational enterprises (MNEs) are of critical importance for economic development, especially for developing and transition economies (Hoekman & Javorcik Smarzynska, 2006; Ivarsson & Alvstam, 2005; Kugler, 2006 and UNCTAD, 2001). A widely supported explanation for this is that MNEs possess superior technological and managerial advantages, and when this knowledge is diffused to local firms, it enhances endogenous firms’ own capabilities (Giroud, 2003; Hoekman & Javorcik Smarzynska, 2006; Lall & Narula, 2004). However, this is not an automatic process; for instance, the potential for linkages and spillovers has been linked to individual subsidiaries’ objectives and activities (Cantwell & Mudambi, 2000; Marin & Bell, 2006).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Governments throughout the developing world seek foreign technology and encourage its transfer from MNEs to local firms, often by promoting joint venture creation. Linkage creation between MNEs and local firms still receives little attention, yet some governments in Asia have started to develop programmes to promote clustering and inter-firm relations (Giroud, 2007). Our results show that governments ought to focus both on the technological competences of foreign subsidiaries themselves, but also on promoting linkages; this would involve developing policy tools to maximize linkage promotion and inter-firm technology transfer. Technological ‘catch-up’ is particularly important in the context of the Eastern European countries where local firms have only recently been faced with the pressures of external competition. Many such firms still need to restructure and upgrade their capital, technology and management (Dries & Swinnen, 2004).