مدیریت نوآوری برای توسعه اقتصادی بیشتر در چین : ریشه های Hsinchu و Zhongguancun فناوری اطلاعات
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|13937||2010||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8899 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Technology in Society, Volume 32, Issue 2, May 2010, Pages 110–121
This paper reports on the preliminary findings from a three-year research project exploring the growth of information technology (IT) clusters in Hsinchu, Taiwan and Zhongguancun, China. Drawing on the history of the origins of IT clusters in these two cities, we examine the formation of clusters to understand the mechanisms and factors, such as technological change and institutional reform, which influenced the formation of these clusters. We discuss the issues concerning the process of managing innovation, the conditions that trigger and/or maintain innovation, and the source of technology for innovation. We conclude that successful innovation in origins of IT clusters is a result of the interplay between the state, the market, and the NGOs.
The question of how to grow the national economies of developing countries has engendered much debate since the end of World War II, as the number of newly independent countries multiplied. Emerging from different historical, cultural, and political traditions, these newly founded countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America shared one economic feature: poverty. Worse, the gap in per capita GNP between them and the developed countries was widening: in 1970, the latter averaged 14.5 times the per capita GNP of the former; while in 1990, the figure rose to 24 . Alleviating poverty in developing countries has been the goal of economic development theories. Since the 1960s, an important aspect of this debate has dealt with the pros and cons of the market mechanism and state intervention in the process of economic catch-up. Early theories argue that the invisible hand of the market is the most efficient method of allocating resources for economic development, and they suggest that the only role of the state is to provide the necessary infrastructure  and . In contrast, later theories maintain that the state should take a more active role than just providing infrastructure. They contend that the developmental state could allocate resources as efficiently as the market does by cooperating, disciplining, and governing the local firms as long as the government keeps its embedded autonomy in the economy , ,  and .
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study contributes to the economic development literature by providing a stylized three-sector model of managing innovation in the origins of Hsinchu and Zhongguancun in Greater China (see Table 1 and Fig. 5). With the initial goal of enhancing the understanding of how Hsinchu and Zhongguancun emerged in the first place, the intention here is to promote the state, the NGOs, and the market as the three important drivers of managing innovation for economic development. It is argued that these are three distinct players with empirically identifiable effects, which were of considerable importance in critical issues such as the process of managing innovation, the conditions for innovation, and the source of technology.