پیش بینی در سیاست های توسعه اقتصادی: شکل دادن چارچوب نهادی برای نوآوری کارآفرینی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|13940||2010||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6134 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Futures, Volume 42, Issue 4, May 2010, Pages 295–303
In this paper we take issue with the standard economic prescription for a “one size fits all” approach to economic development policies. We first argue that the entrepreneur exists in a much broader institutional context than current economic models of entrepreneurship consider. We then develop a definition of entrepreneurship as a special case of foresight—we argue that entrepreneurs are individuals who enact a unique vision of the future, and show how this view of entrepreneurial action leads to a new view of the basis of competitive advantage for startup firms. We then use this definition of entrepreneurship and the expanded view of institutional context to develop a model of entrepreneurial policies that takes the state of economic development and the unique historical context of the country into account. We close by discussing the implications of the model for policy makers and scenario planners in the domain of economic and institutional development.
There can be no question that entrepreneurship is key to a country's economic development. In fact, Schumpeter  suggested that entrepreneurial activity is the only way that economic value is created. Most policy makers want to encourage innovation and entrepreneurial activity, but it is difficult to fully appreciate the full impact of policies designed to transform a system as complex as a nation's economy. For example, it seems doubtful that, as Phelps seems to imply in the quote above, policy makers in Western Continental Europe are deliberately trying to introduce institutions that stifle entrepreneurial activity, even if that has been the effect of their policies (a point we will debate in Section 3.2 of this article). Furthermore, even the most fervent advocate of free markets would surely argue for some restriction on the actions of enterprising and ambitious entrepreneurs. This delicate balance of simultaneously encouraging and constraining entrepreneurial activity requires a special kind of foresight that takes the entire institutional context in which the entrepreneur operates into account. Although public policy is naturally future-oriented, policy makers do not necessarily take the social context of their policies into account . Furthermore, those engaged in public policy foresight must recognize that desirable future states cannot be predicted with any certainty .
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
As we have illustrated in this paper, the world is witnessing a global shift from managerial capitalism  to entrepreneurial capitalism . In Table 2, we have summarized the key differences between these two modes of capitalism. In the near future, managerial capitalism will continue to be dominant in the role of institutions. However, as we move further into entrepreneurial capitalism, institutional development will have to follow, and in some cases lead the shift to entrepreneurial capitalism. Charting the paths of economic development is going to be an exciting, relevant and challenging task that brings numerous challenges for both policy makers and scenario planners.