دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 140132
کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
140132 2018 10 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید 6517 کلمه
خرید مقاله
پس از پرداخت، فوراً می توانید مقاله را دانلود فرمایید.
عنوان انگلیسی
Trading off costs, environmental impact, and levels of service in the optimal design of transit bus fleets
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Available online 10 February 2018

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پیش نمایش مقاله

چکیده انگلیسی

We apply the framework to support design of bus fleets consisting of 4 bus types differing in their fuel-propulsion technology: ultra-low sulfur diesel, hybrid diesel-electric, compressed natural gas, and hydrogen fuel-cell. The 4 bus types were assessed in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory transit bus evaluation and demonstration studies conducted over the period 2003–2009. The nominal problem herein is to minimize acquisition, operation and disposal costs. Constraints in the model are used to impose a minimum frequency of service, i.e., headway, and to ensure that route capacity satisfies passenger demand. Environmental impact is considered along the following dimensions: energy consumption, and emissions of greenhouse gasses, particulate matter, and nitrous oxides. Results show that fleet heterogeneity increases in scenarios where demand fluctuates, i.e., peak vs. off-peak. Perhaps even more interesting, we show how the dual/shadow prices provide a (monetary) measure of the tradeoffs among level of service and environmental impact, and discuss how they can be used to obtain robust fleet configurations.

خرید مقاله
پس از پرداخت، فوراً می توانید مقاله را دانلود فرمایید.