استعداد کارآفرینی و توسعه اقتصادی در چین
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|14052||2010||15 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||12460 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Volume 44, Issue 4, December 2010, Pages 178–192
In this paper, we argue that the economic miracle of China in the past three decades can be attributed to the reallocation of entrepreneurial talent from the government/state and agricultural sectors to business activities. This change is unprecedented in the past two thousand years of Chinese history. When entrepreneurial talent was moved more to business activities, it created wealth, and the economy boomed. Three dominant groups of entrepreneurs are identified: (1) Peasants-turned entrepreneurs, (2) officials-turned entrepreneurs, and (3) overseas-returned, and engineers-turned, entrepreneurs. They have emerged sequentially, and successively led three decades of economic growth. The success of the Chinese economy arises from a gradual replacement of position-based rights with property-based rights that has triggered this reallocation of entrepreneurial talent. We also argue that when position-based and property-based rights coexist, value-creating and rent-seeking can be complementary. Therefore, one should not be puzzled by the coexistence of rapid economic growth and pervasive corruption in China. In order to improve the efficiency of allocation of entrepreneurial talent and efforts, it is important to further reduce the domain of position-based rights, and build a better-defined and more effectively-protected property rights system.
When China began its economic transition, it was unimaginable that an ‘economic miracle’ would occur within a period as short as thirty years. Indeed, when Deng Xiaoping set the target that, by the year 2000, China’s total national income would quadruple that of 1980, many people, including government officials and economists, thought that Deng was being too ambitious, if not unrealistic. However, development of the Chinese economy has been even more rapid than Deng’s forecast. In the past three decades, China’s per capita GDP doubled in less than every 10 years, reaching US$ 2500 by 2007. China rose to be the fourth largest economy in the world by 2005, from 10th in 1978, and the third largest international trade country by 2004, from 27th in 1978.1
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
History has shown that the economic development of a nation depends more on the efficient allocation of entrepreneurial talent than on simply the endowment of such talent , ,  and . (Not surprisingly, this same principal holds within any given organization, especially in light of today’s climate of globalization .) Talented people can thus work well either with government or business. In the latter case, they generally create value for society, while in the former they are mainly engaged in redistributive, or possibly less productive, activities. In the long history of China, talented individuals were generally concentrated in the government. However, the ‘economic miracle’ of China in the past three decades has been due largely to a reallocation of entrepreneurial talent from the government/state and agricultural sectors to business activities. This change is unprecedented in 2000 years of Chinese history.