اجرای پروتکل کیوتو در صربستان به عنوان اطلاع قبلی از توسعه انرژی و اقتصادی پایدار
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|14067||2011||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7091 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Energy Policy, Volume 39, Issue 5, May 2011, Pages 2800–2807
The paper gives reasons for low energy efficiency typical of the Serbian economy, which is based on outdated and dirty technologies. The comparison of selected economic indicators and indicators of energy efficiency in both Serbia and the European Union points out the benefits of the Kyoto Protocol implementation due to the growth of competitiveness in the global market. Serbia has no obligation to reduce GHG emissions, the authors point to the proposals whose implementation along with the mechanisms of the Protocol can enable Serbia the access to markets that trade GHG emissions and the access to dedicated funds, self-financing or attracting foreign investments to raise energy efficiency, which will be accompanied by adequate economic benefits. A similar principle can be applied in all countries that are not obliged to reduce GHG emissions. The application of different mechanisms aiming to increase energy efficiency in Serbia, could contribute to the increase of GDP annual growth rate from 5% to 7%, which cannot be achieved by any other economic instrument. Energy efficiency, which is actually a question of competitiveness of each economy, can finance itself through the mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol by selling excess emissions resulting from improved energy efficiency.
Economic development is only part of the development of a country, for it is obvious that a more intensive economic growth is impossible without environmental protection and reproduction of the environment. Economic growth and development cannot be unlimited, because the production process cannot function independently of the ecological capacity of the living environment. Contemporary conditions of production in highly developed countries are characterized by a compromise (trade off) between the quality of the environment and the economic development of the country. The economic system that does not value natural resources, and stimulates the economic growth regardless of the consequences on the limited resources is not sustainable in the long run. Basically, the entire economic system is to act in accordance with the mature ecological system. Both systems are characterized by cyclicity. An optimal economic system needs to be more productive but also to remove unwanted residuals—waste materials and a surplus of used or emitted energy. As a matter of fact, the Kyoto Protocol mechanisms allow their control and gradual elimination.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, as the most comprehensive international economic instrument of the United Nations for the protection of the environment and encouragement of sustainable economic development, provides great economic benefits to all countries especially the developing ones. The application of different mechanisms aiming to increase energy efficiency in Serbia could contribute to the increase in annual GDP growth rate of 5–7%, which cannot be achieved by any other economic instrument. Consequently, the model economy vs. ecology is definitely an obsolete way of looking at economic growth. The analysis of basic economic indicators of social wealth and energy efficiency indicators leads to the conclusion that the sustainable economic development of Serbia requires the increase in energy efficiency. Additionally, in Serbia only one-fifth of the annual consumption of oil and a quarter of gas consumption originate from domestic sources. With regard to energy sources, Serbia has significant deposits of coal, but these sources are mostly already engaged and will be spent during the working life of existing power plants. Therefore, suitable sources of energy in the near future may include the following: improved energy efficiency, use of biomass, exploitation of small underground coal mines, hydropower potential of small rivers, and intensive use of geothermal energy.