وسایل نقلیه الکتریکی: نقش و اهمیت استانداردها در بازار نوظهور
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|14126||2010||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Energy Policy, Volume 38, Issue 7, July 2010, Pages 3797–3806
After nearly a century with the internal combustion engine dominating the personal transportation sector, it now appears that the electric vehicle is on the verge of experiencing rapid growth in both developed and developing vehicle markets. The broad-scale adoption of the electric vehicle could bring significant changes for society in terms of not only the technologies we use for personal transportation, but also moving our economies away from petroleum and lessoning the environmental footprint of transportation. This article investigates the role of standards, related training and certification for the electric vehicle. It is argued that the potential for the electric vehicle will be stunted without adequate attention being paid to standards, not only in terms of the speed of its uptake and smoothness of this transition, but also in terms of maintaining compatibility between jurisdictions, safety of the public, and helping to ensure environmental sustainability. We highlight a number of areas where new or adaptations of current standards, training and certification may be needed, notably in terms of batteries and charging infrastructures, electricity distribution and accounting for the environmental characteristics of this electricity, and different aspects of vehicle-to-grid and smart grid technologies.
The emerging opportunity for electric vehicles (EV) to revolutionize both the transportation sector and related technological and infrastructure systems over the next 5 to 10 years is immense. In particular, multiple drivers are now lining up to support broad-based adoption of the EV, while new and emerging technologies offer the potential to establish the EV as part of a two-way electricity system, connecting vehicles with the electrical grid through the homes, commercial establishments or other facilities where the EV may be recharged. In order for there to be a smooth transition to a future where the EV is a viable transportation option, where there are changes in technologies and infrastructure in terms of the linkage of the EV with the electrical grid, and that these processes occur in a way that protects the environment, there will need to be a host of changes in regulatory environments, operating practices, as well as the training and education of related vocations and practitioners. This article investigates the role of codes, standards and related training and certification in this respect. In particular, we outline and emphasize the importance of standardization in fostering and enabling the adoption of the EV and related technologies and identify areas where adaptations of existing standardization or new standardization may be needed.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The base standards and regulation frameworks exist to ensure the transition to a market including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles. However, if the market is to expand to include a significant share of EVs, standards and regulation will need to be expanded in order to incorporate the entirety of the system impacts of the EV, from generation impacts, to the vehicle-to-grid “smart grid”, to the end-user. This will require adequate training of professionals and support systems alongside the standards to ensure safety and performance. These efforts in turn will enhance consumer confidence and expand a growing segment of the automotive sector. As of 2010, there are many gaps between where standardization is and where it must go to ensure a market that is strong, safe, worldwide, and sustainable. Basic standards and frameworks exist, but much work to bring the needed regulations and standards to light is still required. A number of the most pressing areas have been identified, particularly new battery technologies, the emergence of V2G technologies and possible impacts on the quality of electricity on power networks, and in terms of the full lifecycle environmental impacts associated with the EV. The first stage needs to be co-ordination between national standards bodies and regulators to ensure that standards and regulations for this fast growing market are not created in a vacuum. Concurrently, it is important that trans-national and cross-industry working groups be formed in order to create an environment of interaction and co-operation. Once the basis for full co-operation and participation exists, national SDOs for electrical vehicles must participate with ISO and IEC to harmonize regional and national standards for power transfer systems and grid interconnection. This will ensure that the “smart” grid roll-out occurring in countries around the world does not give rise to home and EV hazards due to incompatibility. Finally, a harmonized suite of standards for safety and testing should be established for all manufacturers to reference and all conformity assessment agencies to follow.