|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|141791||2017||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7451 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 167, November 2017, Pages 60-71
On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are designed to collect, filter, and release treated wastewater effluent back into the natural environment. If these decentralized systems are not properly installed or regularly maintained, or are spatially distributed at densities that exceed the landscapeâs ability to safely treat wastewater effluent, groundwater can become contaminated. We examine in this paper the evolution of state-level policies regulating on-site wastewater management in the State of Wisconsin (USA). We also present a spatiotemporal analysis of on-site wastewater systems installed in a metropolitan county within southeastern Wisconsin. Findings show: 1) advances in OWTS technologies, coupled with regulatory policy changes, have reduced the influence of physiographic constraints on exurban housing development, 2) over 7,000 on-site wastewater systems are unevenly distributed across the countyâs landscapes, and 3) several OWTS clusters are at high enough densities to threaten groundwater quality, potentially posing public health risks from polluted private well-water. Groundwater contamination risk was assessed, county-wide, by using GIS overlay analysis to compare septic system density (greater than 2.0 systems per acre) with groundwater vulnerability. Our spatial analysis identified several âhot spotsâ that may warrant groundwater monitoring and OWTS inspections to limit potential health impacts. This method of analysis can help public sector planners design context-sensitive policies to manage unsewered housing development within the rural landscape.