فرایند های پویای یادگیری مربوط به دانش در بین المللی کردن شرکت های کوچک و متوسط با تکنولوژی بالا
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|15083||2004||16 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8728 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 89, Issue 3, 18 June 2004, Pages 363–378
This paper studies the internationalization of high-tech small- and medium-sized firms (SMEs). The traditional internationalization theories suggest that the firm's international involvement increases in stages as a result of incremental learning. However, the small information and communications technology (ICT) companies are often characterized as born globals, showing very rapid and intensive international growth enabled by the use of external resources, such as partnerships and networks. Adopting a knowledge-based view of the firm has proved to be a useful way to theoretically explain the internationalization process of these ICT SMEs. However, in our view, the crucial dynamic aspects of knowledge development have not received enough attention in previous empirical studies, which have typically been more like static snapshots. In this paper, we will first launch an evolutionary knowledge management model, derive then its basic theoretical propositions and finally test them empirically in terms of a longitudinal survey of small- and medium-sized software and content providers in the Finnish ICT-sector (from the year 1999 to 2001). Most of the results are straightforward and show that at least some of the proposed knowledge-related determinants really have significant effects on the dynamics of internationalization.
The internationalization process of small and specialized high-technology firms is often different from that of more mature industries. The established internationalization theories propose that the firm's international involvement increases in stages as a result of incremental learning. However, the small information and communications technology (ICT) companies are often characterized as born globals, showing very rapid and intensive international growth enabled by the use of external resources such as partners and networks. Adopting a knowledge-based view of the firm is a practical way to explain the internationalization process of these companies. Nevertheless, the dynamic aspects of knowledge development have not received enough attention in previous empirical studies. The main objective of this paper is to identify how development of knowledge and capabilities may contribute to the rapidity and extensiveness of internationalization. We have applied a general evolutionary knowledge management model that makes it possible to derive the basic determinants of the company's ability to leverage their knowledge in technology, marketing, resources and process management. We attempt to utilize these determinants when explaining the internationalization process and compare our results with the more traditional views about internationalization. From the model we have derived propositions on the dynamic knowledge-related learning processes and their effect on the scale and rapidity of internationalization. The propositions are tested empirically with a longitudinal survey of small- and medium-sized software and content providers in Finnish ICT-sector. Most of the results are straightforward and show that at least some of the main proposed knowledge-related determinants have significant effects on the dynamics of internationalization. The paper consists of five parts. In the first part internationalization theories and particularly the learning aspects and challenges faced by the small high-tech firms are examined. In the subsequent section, the knowledge-based view of the firm is introduced generally. Then, our particular evolutionary knowledge management model for internationalization and propositions will be launched. The empirical part reports the results from our longitudinal data set and the last section concludes the paper with some implications and suggestions for further research as well.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This paper has focused on dynamic knowledge-related learning processes in internationalizing high-tech SMEs. In our view, the knowledge-based view of the firm is a good point of departure when explaining the internationalization of firms. We have proposed an evolutionary knowledge management model for internationalizing SMEs within high-tech industries and made eight propositions. The propositions were related to the nature of knowledge and level of capabilities of the firms, and their effect on internationalization. The study supports the recent literature on born globals since the firms within our sample started their internationalization very early on and rather intensively. This committed internationalization cannot be explained by the traditional “establishment chain” (Johanson and Vahlne, 1977). Firms seem to utilize increasingly more partners and networks and this partly enables SMEs with limited resources to learn and get to the foreign markets sooner. One of the most interesting phenomena that happened during the 2 years (1999–2001) seems to be the shift of the focus from the economies of scope to the economies of scale as main explanatory factors of the internationalization process. This can be explained in terms of the need for more and more specialized capabilities fostered through partial replication processes. Our empirical results from two surveys (1999 and 2001) also show that internationalization of the firms within the Finnish ICT-sector has clearly become more intensive. This can be interpreted so that either the level of knowledge and capabilities of the firms has been improved, or the nature of knowledge has been changed into the direction that enables easier achievement of international competitive advantages, i.e. the absorptive capacity has increased. Since the perceived uncertainty seems to have decreased, the firms also perceive fewer risks and internationalize therefore more intensively. A bit paradoxically, path dependency has also increased. Our attempt to explain this phenomenon goes like this. At the same time when the uncertainty has decreased the firms perceive themselves as more dependent on their previous technological choices. The firms may be better aware of the choices they have made and the risks related to the chosen paths. As mentioned, also the economies of scale have increased during the period. This may implicate that the companies have learned to commercialize their knowledge and capabilities more efficiently. The main managerial contribution of the paper is the recognition of knowledge determinants and capabilities, and their effect on the internationalization. This may serve as a useful benchmark in the strategic planning of the firm as it positions itself within the industry. For example, the development of technological and marketing capabilities tends to lead to more intensive internationalization. Most of the studies explaining the firm internationalization are cross-sectional in nature. With this study we have tried to fill this gap. Moreover, our longitudinal data set offers us plenty of avenues for further research. Interesting research will be generated when we continue our research and extend the level of analysis from industry level to individual firms.