دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 151486
کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
151486 2017 7 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید 4474 کلمه
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عنوان انگلیسی
The Winter Model – A new way to calculate socio-economic costs depending on winter maintenance strategy
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Cold Regions Science and Technology, Volume 136, April 2017, Pages 30-36

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چکیده انگلیسی

As an example of how costs can vary: the scenario is a salted road using a combined plough and salt spreader where the allowed time to complete the action is 4 h that is changed to an unsalted road with an allowed time to complete the action of 5 h. Both scenarios have an action start criteria of 2 cm deep snow, and an annual average daily traffic flow of 2000. Comparison results show that the change from salted to unsalted road saves the most cost due to a reduction in salt use and required actions. However, the increased time to complete the action will result in slightly longer travel times and accident costs will increase by 24.2%. The extended action hour affect fuel consumption in a positive way, for example, consumption decreases slightly due to driving more often at lower speeds on unclear roads. By lowering the road classification standard like in this example, total socio-economic costs increased by 3.5%.

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