تکامل سیاست های مدیریت ساحلی در کشور اسرائیل
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|15290||2000||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7305 کلمه|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Marine Policy, , Volume 24, Issue 5, September 2000, Pages 395-405
This article reviews and evaluates the evolution of coastal management policy in Israel since 1948. It is argued that a sectoral approach to coastal management, based on the land use planning system, has proved to be of limited effectiveness. An upsurge of political interest in coastal management, evident in Israel since the late-1990s, is explained, and associated policy proposals evaluated. It is concluded that while significant challenges remain, Israel has an opportunity to take a decisive step towards a more effective coastal management policy framework.
For coastal nations, integrated coastal management (ICM) is considered a key element in the pursuit of national development goals, particularly within the context of the transition to sustainability ,  and . However, the triggers and mechanisms leading to the adoption of an ICM programme at a national level have been subject to debate. Attempts to develop a generic model of the ICM process generally consist of a stepwise evolution from issue identification to the formulation, implementation and monitoring of a management process ,  and . Progression between stages within the models, especially between strategy planning and “live” management stages are thought to be reliant upon securing sufficient “political will” . In this context, political will is a prerequisite to unlock the resources to empower an ICM process. It has been suggested that a lack of political will may account for the observed gap between high level political and planning mechanisms, which inhibits the integration of ICM into national development planning . The state of Israel has exhibited such a gap since it declared statehood in 1948, although at present the gap appears to be closing. This article examines the evolution of coastal management policy in the state of Israel over the last half-century, in order to identify and evaluate contributory factors to the development of ICM. Particular emphasis is placed on Israel's Mediterranean coast reflecting its status as Israel's most extensive and economically significant coastal area. The article begins by introducing the national context, followed by a review of the major components of Israel's coastal management framework. The framework is then evaluated through the analysis of two thematic case studies; with recent policy recommendations and institutional proposals also considered. Finally, the evolution of coastal policy is related to internal and external influences which are considered to have contributed to the development of political will in Israel for ICM.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
During the last half-century, Israel's coastal management framework has exhibited a transition from a situation in which coastal issues were not addressed, either through policy or in practice, to a situation in which a range of ICM policies have been suggested, including specific coastal conservation legislation. In itself, this demonstrates an emergent political will to address coastal issues. However, policy and administrative evolution are often only outward manifestations of wider political change. The contributing factors that lie behind such changes are less easy to identify and determine their relative significance. In Israel, there is evidence of specific internal and external political influences, each of which have either enhanced or detracted from, the political case for addressing coastal issues. External factors that have worked against addressing coastal issues include national security concerns and rapid immigration events; while internal factors include intense pro-development pressure from a politically important lobby, sub-national land disputes and the pressing need to provide homes for immigrants. External factors that have worked towards addressing coastal issues include the influence of the international sustainability agenda and the MAP and CAMP processes; while internal factors include the lobbying role played by NGOs, an increasingly vocal citizenry, and a planning profession willing to consider change. The overall balance between these factors has been dynamic and subject to rapid change, which has resulted in fluctuating political will to address coastal issues. At present, the balance of political will appears to have shifted in favour of addressing coastal issues. While this represents an opportunity for Israel to take a decisive step towards an integrated approach to coastal management, renewed geo-political uncertainties pose a significant threat to effective policy development.