تغییر ساختاری در شبکه های شرکت های کوچک و متوسط: درسهایی از صنعت چاپ و نشر در تایوان
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|15346||2005||18 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8012 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Long Range Planning, Volume 38, Issue 2, April 2005, Pages 145–162
This study uses the publishing industry to illustrate how Taiwan's small-and-medium enterprises (SMEs) modified their network structures to meet the requirements of the changing environment in the past 20 years. Based on interviews with 21 high-level managers in the top publishers and three network experts, six patterns of network structures were observed and the nature of network structural change was uncovered. By moving from ‘Centre-Satellite Structure’ to ‘Co-opetition Structure’ and then to ‘Spider-Web Structure’, the networks became more strategic, aggressive and flexible. The study suggests that for SMEs in a fiercely competitive industry the best way to survive is to form a network at the strategic level, while keeping relative independence at the operational level. This study also suggests that scholars and practitioners need to understand networking behaviours from multiple perspectives of economic, social, cultural and industrial factors.
In an era characterised by speed, flexibility and innovation, organisational networking plays a vital role. Organisations that seek to reduce costs, respond speedily to market demands and build competitive advantages around their core competencies cannot execute strategies without drawing on the skills and resources of other organisations or individuals.1 We can learn a lot by studying the networking of the small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Taiwan is renowned for the outstanding performance of its SMEs; about 98 per cent of the enterprises in Taiwan are small or medium in size. They have nurtured the country's economic growth and have played a vital role in integrating its economy into the global one. Evolutionary economists assert that to survive, companies must develop some features to meet the new requirements of the changed environment.2 Organisational studies have also showed that the degree of fit between the business environment and organisational design affects a company's performance.3 Although studies have recognised network dynamic change as an important topic, the literature is still very thin. Our study of the change of network structures provides insights into how the new competitive environment requires flexibility, speed and innovation from SMEs and how these organisations have adopted new network strategies in response. From field data collected on Taiwan's publishing industry, we will describe the form and content of network structures, why the relationships were generated, what was exchanged and how the relationships influenced economic performance. From this we will explain how SMEs in Taiwan's publishing industry leverage their specific core competencies to gain competitive advantages through network resources. More critically, we will explain how these actions provide a model for researchers and business people to improve their networking. This study suggests that a successful network must fit the dynamic requirements of the economic, social, cultural and industrial conditions There are several rationales for believing that we can learn from Taiwan's publishing industry. First, publishing is a knowledge-generating industry, which is particularly critical in today's knowledge-based economy. Second, we are likely to observe active networking in this industry. Publishing companies are known for their short product lifecycle, knowledge-intensiveness and high demands to exchange knowledge in quick response to changing market conditions and technological development. Hence they are more active in networking. The paper proceeds as follows. In the literature review section we introduce key studies on network structure and its change and present a framework of analysis for mapping network structures. Then we briefly introduce the background of Taiwan's publishing industry before presenting research methodology. In the research finding and discussion section, we first portray six patterns of network structures observed in the publishing industry; then we articulate a generic three-stage-model of network structural change in Taiwan SMEs. Finally we discuss the network structural changes in Taiwan's publishing industry by linking the specific network patterns in the industry with the generic three-stage model. We end with implications and a brief conclusion. This study suggests that a successful network must fit the dynamic requirements of the economic, social, cultural and industrial conditions. To survive the fierce competition, SMEs need to adjust their networking activities with more strategic, aggressive and flexible considerations.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this era of hyper-competition, an organisation's survival and growth largely depends upon its linkages to other organisations. The network structure manifests partnering philosophy and provides a good platform to examine the features of business environments and companies' response to environmental requirements. Through mapping specific network patterns in the publishing industry, this study uncovered a general trend of network structural change that has occurred in the past two decades among Taiwanese SMEs – from ‘Centre-Satellite Structure’ to ‘Co-opetition structure’ to ‘Spider-Web Structure’. Network, as an evolutionary organisational form, became more strategic, aggressive and flexible. Using Taiwan's publishing industry as the research context, this study suggests that scholars and practitioners need to understand company networking behaviours from the perspectives of economic, social, cultural and industrial factors. A successful network must fit the dynamic requirements of these contingencies.