بررسی مقالات پژوهشی در هند
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|15609||2007||35 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||11482 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Volume 74, Issue 9, November 2007, Pages 1574–1608
The structure and infrastructure of the Indian research literature were determined. A representative database of technical articles was extracted from the Science Citation Index/Social Science Citation Index (SCI/SSCI) [SCI. Certain data included herein are derived from the Science Citation Index/Social Science Citation Index prepared by the THOMSON SCIENTIFIC®, Inc. (Thomson®), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA: ©Copyright THOMSON SCIENTIFIC® 2006. All rights reserved. ] for 2005, with each article containing at least one author with an India address. Document clustering was used to identify the main technical themes (core competencies) of Indian research. Aggregate India bibliometrics were also performed, emphasizing the value of collaborative research to India. A unique mapping approach was used to identify networks of organizations that published together, networks of organizations with common technical interests, and especially those organizations with common technical interests that did not co-publish extensively. Finally, trend analyses were performed using other year data from the SCI/SSCI to place the 2005 results in their proper historical context.
South–East and East Asia have become dynamic growth areas, especially in science and technology (S&T) (see for example ). Our text mining studies of specific technologies over recent years have shown dramatic growth in research output production by China, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore (e.g., ), to name a few. As a result, we have started to adopt a national view of research output from some countries in the region, and are examining research products from individual countries. The preceding paper in this Special Issue was focused on an assessment of China's research enterprise. The present paper focuses on India's research enterprise, and the next paper in this Special Issue will compare the research outputs of the two countries. The primary objective of the present study is to identify the S&T core competencies of India. In addition, temporal trends of significant research-related parameters will be presented. These trends will provide a context in which to interpret India's present research output status, and will provide support for the predictive conclusions that follow.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
India's research article production reached a plateau during the period 1980–1995, and it has since started a rapid increase. The main technical focus at present is on the three physical sciences in areas of chemistry, physics, and materials, supported by a strong foundation of applied mathematics. Half the journals that contain most of the Indian papers are domestic Indian journals, and they have low Impact Factors. Collaboration with external researchers has the effect of dramatically increasing the absolute number of papers and presence of papers with Indian authors in the higher Impact Factor journals, as well as the numbers of papers with high citations. India is increasing its growth of articles in highly cited journals greater than its overall increase in growth of research articles overall. Journals most cited by Indian authors are all international, and have Impact Factors of an order of magnitude larger than the Impact Factors of the journals that publish most of the Indian papers. The network of Indian co-publishing institutions is weakly linked, but the network of institutions with common thematic interests has some very strong links. In particular, the Indian Institute of Technology and the Indian Institute of Science (India's two leading research publishing institutions) have no strong co-publishing links, but they are at the centers of a bi-polar core of the network of institutions with common thematic interests. In comparing the most cited Indian papers with the least cited, the following characteristics were identified: • The most cited were published in international journals, while the least cited were published in domestic Indian journals. The most cited emphasized chemistry, physics, and medicine, while the least cited had substantial representation from agricultural and veterinary sciences. • The names of the authors of the least cited were all Indian. The names of the authors of the most cited (published a few decades ago) were mainly Indian, but due to an anomaly, the names of the top authors of highly cited papers published relatively recently are non-Indian. • Institutions associated with the least cited papers are mainly Indian, and this has not changed with time. For papers published decades ago, institutions associated with the most cited are mainly Indian, and are dominated by the Indian Institution of Technology and Indian Institute of Science. For relatively recent papers, institutions associated with the most cited are non-Indian, due to the same anomaly referenced above. • The USA has been the leading collaborator on the most highly cited papers for decades, increasing its participation from 28% in 1979–1987 to 65% in 1998–2003. India has remained essentially the only country associated with the least cited papers, with a handful of countries listed with very low frequency in recently published papers. • In comparing India's research investment allocation relative to that of the USA, India's strong relative emphasis was on traditional agricultural products, phenomena in the visible spectrum, and selected chemistry topics. The USA's relative research emphasis areas focused on medical, psychological, and sociological.