|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|156430||2018||66 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||17170 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Volume 352, 15 February 2018, Pages 55-77
Unusual deposits, mapped and logged in detail, around the summit area of Tongariro volcano, Tongariro Volcanic Centre, New Zealand indicate that the construction and evolution of a substantial portion of this andesitic stratovolcano was beneath a significant ice cap or summit glacier. As the edifice was built under and through the overlying ice, the style of volcanism evolved in a complex history of growth. Initially, a â¥Â 100Â m thick, widespread hyaloclastite deposit was emplaced within a subglacial, eruption-formed meltwater lake. This was followed by several phases of effusive and explosive eruptions, producing lava flows and primary volcaniclastic deposits emplaced along channels carved into the ice by heated meltwater. The clastic deposits contain quenched bombs and structural features that indicate waterlain transport and emplacement, and soft sediment deformation. Such accumulation of water on a steep-sided edifice without evidence for a subaerial crater lake, along with lava flow features indicating confinement, suggest that a substantial summit glacier was responsible for the production and retention of water, and the architecture of these deposits. Recent studies at nearby Ruapehu volcano have provided good evidence for glaciovolcanic interactions during the last glacial period. However, until now, little was known of the physical lava-ice interactions in the Centre during the last interglacial period and the earlier part of the last glacial period (110â64Â ka). These new data support a reinterpretation for the volcanic evolution of the older Tongariro edifice and the emplacement mechanisms of primary volcaniclastic deposits. They also help to constrain local ice thicknesses and extents at the times of eruption. In addition, this study contributes to a sparse global catalogue of glaciovolcanic deposits of andesitic composition, particularly of primary volcaniclastics preserved at mid-latitude stratovolcanoes. The variety of deposit types indicates a volcano building and evolving with glaciation and is an outstanding example of the types of glaciovolcanic interaction that can occur at one volcano.