الهام گرفته شده از ویروس: بررسی تئوری بازاریابی پنهانی ویروسی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|165||2009||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ), Volume 17, Issue 1, May 2009, Pages 9–15
Viral stealth marketing is a contemporary marketing technique, which has evolved in reaction to the increasingly competitive marketing environment. This paper notes that despite its huge potential, very little research is being targeted towards understanding the utility of viral stealth marketing, particularly in the context of Generation Y, whose behavioural characteristics are particularly suited to this form of marketing. This paper explores the nature of viral stealth marketing and its ethical implications; then formulates an agenda for future research that has a potential to add significant value to organisations.
Viral stealth marketing is an emerging and contemporary marketing technique, which has evolved in reaction to the increasing promotional ‘clutter’ aimed at consumer markets. Viral stealth marketing is an electronic word of mouth communication that is spread in an exponential and contagious manner using the highly effective platform of the electronic medium. The people spreading these marketing messages are required not to disclose the fact that they are being paid to promote the product for the organisation. This aspect of non-disclosure raises some important questions about the ethics of this marketing technique. Generation Y (Gen Y) are particularly susceptible to this form of marketing, due to their proclivity for electronic communications and tendency to favour word of mouth communications over traditional forms of advertising. Within USA, Gen Y comprises 70 million people (Gogoi, 2005) with spending power in excess of $150 billion a year (Krotz, 2007). This makes them a highly lucrative and attractive target market. Examining their attitudes towards viral stealth marketing in terms of its ethics and effectiveness, as well as how these attitudes affect their brand perceptions and purchase intentions, is of great importance to the marketing sector and any organisations considering reaching Gen Y using this marketing technique. This paper explores the nature of viral stealth marketing and its ethical implications, then formulates an agenda for future research. As companies expand their marketing activities, the promotional ‘clutter’ across media channels increases. This clutter makes it progressively more difficult to capture the attention of potential consumers. In response, viral stealth marketing (VSM) has emerged as a contemporary marketing technique. Capitalizing on the efficacy of the electronic medium and on the credibility of word of mouth (WOM) marketing, viral stealth marketing seeks to disguise the relationship between the individual(s) conveying the message and the organisation endorsing it. Thus, a more subtle form of communication ensues which reaches consumers on a more personal level to influence their buying behaviour. Published research on viral stealth marketing is limited, particularly in relation to Gen Y and how these consumers perceive this marketing technique. For example, a literature review of VSM and Gen Y found one published study that was dedicated to a form of VSM called ‘Buzz Marketing’ (Ahuja et al., 2007). This study, which reveals some interesting insights and contrasts in Gen Y beliefs, employs a WOM, focus group methodology. Although a small percentage of teenagers perceived buzz marketing as “sneaky” or “secretive”, there was no real evidence of a moral dilemma from participants in this study (Ahuja et al., 2007, p. 159). Apart from this research, there appears to be a void in studies of EWOM that utilise VSM approaches, which is an appropriate communication mechanism for Gen Y consumers. This paper reviews the literature and formulates an agenda for further research regarding the ethics and effectiveness of the viral stealth marketing technique with particular emphasis on how it is perceived by Generation Y (Gen Y). Gen Y is one of the largest consumer groups, with spending power in excess of $150 billion a year within America (Krotz, 2007). Gen Y is extremely adept with technology, and is therefore a prime target for viral stealth marketing. Gen Y attitudes towards this emerging and alternative marketing method are of significant value to the marketing industry and organisations seeking to penetrate this highly lucrative market.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
VSM is a relatively new premise that capitalizes on electronic social networks, utilizing the credibility of word of mouth communication to prevail over the traditional promotional ‘clutter’ in the marketplace. The nature of VSM seeks to present the marketing message as spontaneous and unsolicited, whilst disguising the true promotional source behind the campaign. This aspect of concealment gives rise to important questions regarding the ethics of VSM. A review of the marketing literature reveals limited empirical research that examines stealth marketing and, the research that has been published, primarily addresses the physical and verbal context. There is a scope for further research on the electronic aspects of VSM, especially with respect to marketing’s arguably largest and most lucrative demographic segment, Gen Y, who are predominantly the targets of this novel technique. Understanding VSM effectiveness in a Gen Y context has potential to unlock access to the large discretionary expenditures of Gen Y to organisations. The aim of this paper is to build a theoretical base for empirical enquiry of EWOM and EBuzz marketing through viral stealth marketing approaches, and to explore the ethical debates surrounding it. We believe that this enquiry must incorporate the attitudes of Generation Y consumers towards this marketing method from an ethical standpoint and the consequences these attitudes have on brand perception, and ultimately intention to purchase. These are fundamental marketing questions that are relevant to the marketing sector to ensure that their actions are socially responsible, as well as effective.