دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 17299
عنوان فارسی مقاله

منابع عمومی برای فرهنگ خصوصی: شمال شرقی ایالات متحده، آتلانتیک کانادا و اسکاتلند پس از پیمان نفتا و گات

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
17299 2000 12 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید محاسبه نشده
خرید مقاله
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عنوان انگلیسی
Public resources for private mariculture: Northeastern United States, Atlantic Canada and Scotland after NAFTA and GATT
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Marine Policy, Volume 24, Issue 1, January 2000, Pages 21–32

کلمات کلیدی
پشتیبانی عمومی - نوآوری - تجارت بین الملل
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله منابع عمومی برای فرهنگ خصوصی: شمال شرقی ایالات متحده، آتلانتیک کانادا و اسکاتلند پس از پیمان نفتا و گات

چکیده انگلیسی

During the past decade, mariculture development has increased rapidly in the north Atlantic Ocean. However, global developments in the market for farm-reared salmon have raised concern about government policy and intervention on behalf of mariculture sectors in closely competing countries and regions. This paper provides an analysis of public sector involvement in private sector mariculture innovation and investment in three regions: the New England states of the US, the Atlantic Provinces of Canada, and the Highlands and Islands region of Scotland. It illustrates temporal (1984–1997) and geographic differences in those mechanisms financing innovation and assisting private capital formation. As international trade rules eliminate tariff and other barriers supporting domestic industry, innovation assistance and capital market policies may become more prevalent. Recent support policy changes in Canada are illustrative.

مقدمه انگلیسی

Mariculture production1 has increased rapidly in the northern Atlantic Ocean since 1984.2 Because the Uruguay round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT 1994) excluded fish and fish products from the ‘agricultural exemptions’ to its Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (SCM), its provisions apply to public sector involvement in mariculture development.3 As the international community adopted new and revised free trade agreements, wild stock declines in groundfish species forced marine fishing restrictions and fishing industry restructuring. Simultaneously, mariculture development has been promoted as a supplemental source of marine production and criticized for alleged environmental and aesthetic nuisance. To date, mariculture development in the north Atlantic region has been dominated by salmonid rearing. Charges of farm-raised salmon dumping by Norway [5], [6] and [7] and Chile [8] highlight concern regarding the nature of international markets for certain maricultured products. A related issue concerns the effect of differential public support for mariculture development on costs of production [9] and [10]. While product dumping is prohibited under the rules of international trade and subject to antidumping duties, differential public support continues to be allowed under many circumstances.4 This research delineates the extent of public involvement in private sector mariculture enterprises in three comparable regions: Atlantic Canada, the northeastern United States, and the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. The regions share common maricultured species as well as some geographical, historical, cultural and, therefore, gastronomic linkages. In mariculture, as in other sectors, struggling domestic industries may justify increased domestic government action or support by appealing to the ‘unfair’ advantages or practices of their competitors. This paper describes elements of three systems of public support for innovation and input costs.5 These ‘product and export measures’ [11] and [12] were chosen, in part, because of their demonstrated existence and likely persistence under GATT 1994. A systematic inventory of such domestic mariculture industry support in three regions likely to compete in regional and global markets for certain maricultured species (see Table 1) precedes a discussion of some theoretical trade effects, whether ‘countervailable’ or not, associated with those differences. Table 1. North Atlantic Mariculture, 1985–1995 Species group Mariculture quantity (metric tons) Leading North Atlantic Grower Percent of globalnlandings cultured in 1985 1990 1995 Location Percent of N. Atl. Culture North Atlantic World-wide Shellfish 597 102 523 709 532 156 Abalone (European) 0 0 6 Channel Islands 100.0 10.9 10.9 Periwinkles 0 800 1137 France 100.0 Clams, Cockles and Arkshells 7190 15255 27 143 Common cockle 0 1497 7002 Spain 65.6 10.0 10.0 Hard clam (N. quahog) 1900 6691 10 942 USA 100.0 23.8 62.6 Soft-shelled clam 184 1 7 USA 100.0 <0.1 <0.1 Grooved carpet shell 5106 6630 7387 Spain 70.4 78.8 79.0 Japanese carpet shell 0 46 214 France 92.1 <0.1 94.4 Other bivalvia 0 390 1591 Germany 74.9 Mussels 446 653 365 665 357 560 Blue 446 653 365 665 357 260 Spain 51.0 71.0 71.0 Other mytilidae 0 0 300 Russian Fed. 100.0 Oysters 143 066 141 536 145 915 Portuguese cupped 0 70 652 Portugal 100.0 98.8 98.8 Pacific cupped 135 819 132 170 134 785 France 96.7 4.6 99.3 American cuppeda 2300 2572 2459 Canadaa 100.0 1.0 44.4 Other crassostrea 0 1182 1568 Netherlands 82.9 European flat 4947 5542 6451 Spain/France 48.1/41.3 58.9 59.5 Scallops/Pectens 150 187 272 Great Atlantic scallop 150 133 226 Spain 34.5 0.9 0.9 Queen scallop 0 54 46 UK 100.0 0.6 0.6 Other mollusca 0 100 0 Shrimps/Prawns 43 166 123 Common prawn 40 160 110 Spain 100.0 30.6 30.6 Kuruma prawn 3 6 13 France 100.0 0.1 24.2 Finfish 57 376 244 877 434 958 Eels (European) 20 125 156 Spain 98.1 1.0 47.0 Salmonids 56 591 242 912 427 108 Coho salmon 70 80 0 n.a. n.a. 0.0 66.9 Rainbow trout 17 722 30 080 40 162 Norway/Finland 36.9/34.6 11.0 99.2 Atlantic salmon 387 97 212 312 385 610 Norway 67.9 81.6 98.6 Sea trout 0 279 1047 France 66.6 12.4 72.7 Other salvelinus 2 161 289 Norway 100.0 Groundfish 88 658 3292 Atlantic cod 0 0 322 Norway 89.8 <0.1 <0.1 Common sole 35 2 5 Portugal 100.0 <0.1 <0.1 Turbot 53 656 2965 Spain 73.3 21.3 21.3 Seabass and Seabream 243 703 3822 European seabass 71 33 699 Spain 66.0 2.9 80.9 Gilthead seabream 172 670 3123 Spain 86.6 10.1 79.0 Mullets 396 121 115 Spain 99.1 Tuna (Northern bluefin) 38 358 15 Spain 100.0 <0.1 <0.1 Other finfish 0 0 450 Norway 98.7 Aquatic Plants 6 6 100 Brown seaweeds 6 6 100 France 100.0 Total Mariculture 654 484 768 592 967 214 a Connecticut, a northeastern US state, cultivated more than 20 400 metric tons of American oyster in 1995 (based on Spatz et al. [13]). The yield is not included in FAO North Atlantic areas. Source: FAO [4].

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