دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 17491
عنوان فارسی مقاله

سیاست بهینه تحقیق و توسعه و انتخاب کیفیت درون زا

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
17491 2003 20 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید محاسبه نشده
خرید مقاله
پس از پرداخت، فوراً می توانید مقاله را دانلود فرمایید.
عنوان انگلیسی
Optimal R&D policy and endogenous quality choice
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : International Journal of Industrial Organization, Volume 21, Issue 8, October 2003, Pages 1159–1178

کلمات کلیدی
- & - انتخاب کیفیت داخلی - سیاست تحقیق و توسعه
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله سیاست بهینه تحقیق و توسعه و انتخاب کیفیت درون زا

چکیده انگلیسی

In a quality-differentiated duopoly where (i) quality is endogenously chosen before production, (ii) fixed costs are increasing and convex in quality, and (iii) variable production costs are insubstantial, an R&D subsidy for the firm producing a high-quality product improves social welfare, irrespective of whether the ensuing product–market competition is Bertrand or Cournot, while an R&D subsidy for the firm producing a low-quality product improves social welfare only if Bertrand, and not if Cournot.

مقدمه انگلیسی

In high-technology industries, such as automobiles, computers, consumer electronics, and others, the firms engage in Research and Development (R&D, hereafter) activities to develop new products and improve product qualities, i.e. product R&D. Since oligopolistic competition prevails in such industries, the firms invest strategically in product R&D. In that case, socially optimal product qualities are not necessarily chosen by an individual firm. But there are many cases where governments have used various policy measures to affect R&D activities. In particular, R&D subsidies and government-sponsored research projects have been popular in Japan and European countries.

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی

In this paper, based on the model of a quality-differentiated duopoly with endogenous quality choice, we have discussed the implications of subsidy/tax policies targeted at R&D investments to improve product qualities in the cases of Bertrand and Cournot duopoly. We have shown that the effects of R&D subsidies on qualities and quantities demanded depend on the firm’s strategic relationship in the quality decision. Moreover, we have presented the R&D policies to maximize (i) net total consumer surplus, (ii) net producer surplus, i.e., aggregate profit, and (iii) social surplus. (i) Regardless of the mode of competition, the R&D policy to maximize net consumer surplus is to subsidize the two firms, if the government’s burden of the subsidies is sufficiently small. (ii) Under Bertrand competition, the R&D policy to maximize net producer surplus is to subsidize the higher quality firm and tax the lower quality firm. On the other hand, under Cournot competition, R&D taxation upon the two firms increases net producer surplus.

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