فیلترینگ همکاری سازگار با سیستم های توصیه گر آموزش الکترونیکی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|17495||2009||5 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||3517 کلمه|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Knowledge-Based Systems, Volume 22, Issue 4, May 2009, Pages 261–265
In the context of e-learning recommender systems, we propose that the users with greater knowledge (for example, those who have obtained better results in various tests) have greater weight in the calculation of the recommendations than the users with less knowledge. To achieve this objective, we have designed some new equations in the nucleus of the memory-based collaborative filtering, in such a way that the existent equations are extended to collect and process the information relative to the scores obtained by each user in a variable number of level tests.
Recommender systems (RS) cover an important field within collaborative services that are developed in the Web 2.0 environment ,  and  and enable user-generated opinions to be exploited in a sophisticated and powerful way. RS can be considered as social networking tools that provide dynamic and collaborative communication, interaction and knowledge. RS cover a wide variety of applications ,  and , although, those related to movie recommendations are the most well-known and most widely-used in the research field ,  and . Nevertheless, the collaborative e-learning field is strongly growing  and , converting this area in an important receiver of applications and generating numerous research papers  and  into the computer science field  and  and into different areas  and . The endeavor to create distributed, federation  and grid  collaborative e-learning services are particularly interesting. The RS stage that normally has the greatest influence on the quality of the results obtained is the collaborative filtering (CF) phase  and . CF is based on making predictions about a user’s preferences or tastes based on the preferences of a group of users that are considered similar to this user. A substantial part of the research in the area of CF centers on how to determine which users are similar to the given one; in order to tackle this task, there are fundamentally 3 approaches: memory-based methods, model-based methods and hybrid approaches. Memory-based methods  and  use similarity metrics  and act directly on the ratio matrix that contains the ratings of all users who have expressed their preferences on the collaborative service; these metrics mathematically express a distance between two users based on each of their ratios. Model-based methods  use the ratio matrix to create a model from which the sets of similar users will be established. Among the most widely-used models we have: Bayesian classifiers , neural networks  and fuzzy systems . Generally, commercial RS use memory-based methods , while model-based methods are usually associated with research RS. Regardless of the method used in the CF stage, the technical objective generally pursued is to minimize the prediction errors, by making the accuracy , ,  and  of the RS as high as possible; nevertheless, there are other objectives that need to be taken into account: avoid overspecialization phenomena, find good items, credibility of recommendations, precision, recall measures, etc. Memory-based methods work on a table of U users who have rated I items. The prediction of a non-rated item i for a user u is computed as an aggregate of the ratings r of the K most similar users (k-neighborhoods) for the same item i. The most common aggregation approaches are the average and the weighted sum; the similarity approaches usually compute the similarity between two users x and y: sim(x,y) based on their ratings of items that both users have rated. The most popular similarity metrics are Pearson correlation and cosine.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The recommender systems of e-learning allow the possibility of weighting the importance of the recommendations that each user generates, depending on their level of knowledge. In order to include the knowledge level of the users in the collaborative filtering step, it is necessary to design new metrics which, being based on the current ones, incorporate the additional information with regards to the scores obtained by each user. The validation of the new metrics requires a modification of the traditional equations used in order to measure the total error of the system when these metrics are used; the mean absolute error, mean squared error, or whatever other measurement of the total accuracy of the system must also reflect the knowledge level of the users. The new metric proposed in the paper has obtained better results than the traditional equivalent when both have been subjected to the processing of the total accuracy of the system using a MAE measure adapted to include the knowledge of the users. The remaining indicators studied (percentage of correct predictions and percentage of particularly erroneous predictions) has also produced better results using the proposed metric. Although the experiments have not been carried out with an e-learning database, both the equations designed and the methodology used could be used in the same way in different recommender systems of e-learning. The solidity of the database used, the large number of experiments carried out and the quality of the results obtained permit us to face developments in the distinct recommender systems in the sense of differentiating the users by some characteristic, such as by knowledge in the sphere of collaborative e-learning. A well defined field of research exists in collaborative filtering when the nature of the recommender systems allows the incorporation of weighting in the importance of each one of the users, and the collaborative systems of e-learning are named to lead the developments in this new field of investigation.