استفاده از منابع در برنامه ریزی سیاست تحقیق و توسعه : برزیل، آمازون و بیوتکنولوژی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|17496||2005||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Volume 72, Issue 5, June 2005, Pages 535–547
Brazil's research and development (R&D) policies are examined in light of changes in economic direction especially as it pertains to competition. In a competitive environment, regions should develop industrial applications and expertise in areas that coincide with their resources. These could be human resources but could, as in the focus of this paper, be useful resources that differentiate the region from others in the world. This differentiation provides an advantage to the region. Brazil and its Amazon region has the large majority of the world's rare genes. In biotechnology, genes are “green gold,” and Brazil is slowly developing a biotechnology industry and beginning to tap into the Brazilian Amazon region's economic biotech potential. This region has enormous potential for the development of biotech-related technologies and products. This paper discusses the relationship between resources and an R&D strategy using as an example the recent developments in biotechnology research in Brazil and the role of the Amazon region in the development of a Brazilian biotechnology industry. It recommends a number of policy initiatives that will enhance Brazil's focus on biotechnology.
The economic principles that guided Brazil's past policies placed a premium on protecting the Brazilian market from foreign competition. The interventionist hand of the Brazilian State made research and development unimportant for companies operating in the protected economic environment ,  and . In addition, most R&D efforts were championed by the state; very few initiatives were controlled by the private sector. Several R&D efforts, like the creation of a Brazilian aircraft manufacturer, Embraer, were technological initiatives championed by the Brazilian government ,  and . Thus, a tradition of strong reliance on the Brazilian government for R&D efforts was created ,  and . This state-led R&D paradigm offers an interesting contrast to R&D paradigms developed in Asia, Europe, and the United States, where the private sector plays the leading role in R&D efforts . In the early 1990s, a new economic model was established in Brazil. The Brazilian market was opened to foreign competition, placing more emphasis on technological innovation, quality, and competitive pricing. The Brazilian private sector was forced to rethink strategies and boost efforts to innovate and build competitive advantages. It was in this new economic scenario that Brazilian biotechnology efforts started to take shape .
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Countries and regions are using resources available to them as part of the decision-making process to identify and implement strategies that utilize these resources in their R&D policies. The example of Brazil and its budding biotechnology industry can be applied throughout the world to depict this strategic initiative that can be used by other countries and regions in their search for technology-based areas to bump their economic engines. There are, however, many actions and issues with which Brazil needs to deal with to take advantage of the unique assets that provide natural competitive advantages in the global biotech industry. This region has the world's highest density of natural resources, acting as a magnet for biotech companies, but Brazil is still facing the challenge to develop more indigenous biotech technology, and finding ways to turn this technology into commercial products. The lack of support to basic research has plagued Brazil's scientific community for decades. R&D long-term policies that focus on this area are a must. The next few years will be crucial to Brazilian biotech firms and scientists. A set of policies will have to be in place to materialize Brazil's natural competitive advantage in the global biotech industry.