تاثیر ادراک فروشگاه آنلاین، خرید لذتبخش ، و مشارکت خرید بر رفتار حمایتی مصرف کننده نسبت به خرده فروش آنلاین
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|1786||2007||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Volume 14, Issue 2, March 2007, Pages 95–107
Online apparel retailers have adopted various types of image interactivity technology (IIT), such as close-up pictures or zoom-in functions, mix-and-match functions, and 3D virtual models to enhance consumers’ online shopping experience. The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of level of IIT on consumer perception of online retail environment, shopping enjoyment, shopping involvement, a desire to stay, and patronage intention. Significant structural relationships between these research variables were found, supporting a pleasure-oriented conceptual model of consumer patronage behavior in the online retailing environment. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
Even though online sales still represent a small segment of overall retail sales, online sales are growing rapidly (DesMarteau, 2004). US Department of Commerce reported that the e-commerce sales estimate in the third quarter of 2005 increased 26.7% from the third quarter of 2004 and 2.7% from the second quarter of 2005 (Quarterly retail e-commerce sales, 2005). Apparel became the second largest online product category with $6 billion in sales in 2003, which is doubled from the sales in 2001 (United States Department of Commerce, 2003 and United States Department of Commerce, 2005). Online sales of apparel grew by 54% in 2003, eclipsing the growth rates of online stalwarts such as books, music, videos, software, and hardware (Marlin, 2004). Hence, with apparel sales burgeoning, understanding the impact of image interactivity technology (IIT) on an apparel firm takes on more significance. Steuer (1992) defined interactivity as the “extent to which users can participate in modifying the form and content of a mediated environment in real time (p. 84).” Interactivity of a Web site may offer a wide range of benefits to customers and marketers including facilitated communications, customization of presented information, image manipulation, and entertainment (Fiore et al., 2005a). Moreover, the interactive nature of Web sites has been credited with positively affecting consumer responses, including increasing the desire to browse and purchase online (Fiore and Jin, 2003; Fiore et al., 2005a and Fiore et al., 2005b; Gehrke and Turban, 1999; Lee et al., in press; Mathwick, 2002). In the present study we focus on one aspect of IIT employed by Internet apparel retailers, the 3D virtual model, which provides the ability to manipulate presentation of an apparel product or combinations of products on a virtually created body on a Web site. This IIT method allows the viewer/shopper to view the garments from various angles or distances (Fiore and Jin, 2003). IIT offers an innovative way to present the product, articulate product attributes, and simulate product experience in a virtual world. The level of interactivity offered by IIT varies by technology used. A single 2D pictorial image of the product that is clicked to enlarge the image provides the user with a low level of interactivity, whereas a mix-and-match feature or zoom-in function, which allows the user more control over the manipulation of the product image, offers a higher level of interactivity. A relatively new form of IIT, 3D virtual model technology, offers an even higher level of interactivity. This form of IIT allows the customer to view a combination of products on the body and from different angles and distances. Research shows that 3D virtual product presentations provide a stimulating experience due to vivid sensory information and the psychological sensation of being present in the online environment (Li et al., 2001). The ability to simulate trying the product on one's body using a 3D virtual model may also be an important interactive feature for apparel Web sites because consumers frequently state the inability to try on the product leads to hesitation to purchase apparel online (Abend, 2001). According to Sam Taylor, vice president of e-commerce for Lands’ End, virtual model technology used on Landsend.com contributed to a 34% increase in conversion rate of shoppers to buyers and more apparel purchases (DesMarteau, 2004). Various apparel retailers have adopted this virtual model technology to enhance the online shopping experience. Currently, Lands’ End, Sears, L.L. Bean, Adidas, Speedo, H&M, and iVillage utilize My Virtual Model™ technology on their Web sites (Go shopping, 2005). For example, one of the largest online apparel retailers, Lands’ End, claimed that the updated version of My Virtual Model™ that allows customers to use their specific body measurements when creating the virtual model makes shopping for Lands’ End apparel online even easier and more accurate by providing size recommendations (Lands’ End, 2004). Researchers found that simple technologies providing interactivity have positive effects on consumer responses (Klein, 2003; Schlosser, 2003). However, the present researchers propose advanced IIT, providing a higher level of image interactivity, will promote more positive consumer responses than does lower level IIT. Hence, the present study will compare the relative effect of level of IIT, with virtual model technology (described above) as a high level of IIT and enlargement of front views of products as a low level of IIT, on approach responses (e.g., desire to stay, patronage intention to an online retailer). In the next section we will discuss relationships among research variables and propose a conceptual model. Fig. 1 displays the proposed conceptual model of online patronage behavior suggesting relationships among research constructs.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
IIT is one of the most visited Web site features, attracts new customers, and retains existing customers for online retailers (New data from lands’ end shows value of My Virtual Model™ technology, 2001; Waxer, 2001). Empirical research supports that a higher level of IIT enhances approach responses towards the online retailer or product (Fiore and Jin, 2003; Fiore et al., 2005a and Fiore et al., 2005b; Lee et al., in press; Li et al., 2001; Shih, 1998; Wu, 1999). The findings of the present study add to this empirical support; level of IIT had direct effects on approach responses towards the online retailer (e.g., desire to stay, patronage intention to the online retailer). In line with research (Li et al., 2001) showing that shoppers engage more with the shopping experience when provided highly interactive merchandise presentations, the results of the present study show that respondents exposed to a higher level of image interactivity, in the form of a 3D virtual model, expressed higher levels of shopping enjoyment, shopping involvement, and more positive online store environment perceptions as compared to respondents exposed to a lower level of image interactivity (i.e., clicking to enlarge images), commonly used by online retailers. The results also show that perception of an online store environment (e.g., color, layout) had a strong direct effect on shopping enjoyment, shopping involvement, and desire to stay and strong indirect effect on patronage intention towards an online store. These results confirm previous empirical findings for bricks-and-mortar environments showing that shopping enjoyment, engagement in the shopping activity, and approach responses are influenced by positive perceptions of store environment (Donovan and Rossiter, 1982; Swinyard, 1993). Shopping enjoyment, created by level of IIT and store environment perception, positively influenced the desire to stay on the Web site which is consistent with previous research (Eroglu et al., 2003; Fiore et al., 2005a; Forsythe and Bailey, 1996; Menon and Kahn, 2002). The results also illustrate that shopping involvement, created by the level of IIT and store environment perception, had a positive impact on both desire to stay and patronage intention towards the retailer. These results confirmed previous findings for involvement with a shopping mall context (Wakefield and Baker, 1998)