موانع ظهور پارک های فن آوری نوین و بالا، سرمایه گذاری ها و خوشه ها در ژاپن
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|17979||2005||15 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7364 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Volume 72, Issue 3, March 2005, Pages 359–373
The feasibility of and obstacles to government policies to promote high/new technology (HNT) parks, ventures and clusters are examined mainly in regard to the value systems in the administration and businesses (AB) world and the science and technology (ST) world. Using the language analysis method developed in the philosophy of science, semantic gaps concerning science and research between the two worlds were analyzed and demonstrated as leading the Japanese ST policies into contradictions. Cultural factors such as value gaps between the two worlds are shown to be responsible for the unsuccessful outcome of the ST policies. It is advised to reverse the current ST policies as a short-range policy and to foster ST potential in local areas by renovating traditional fermentation and other techniques and starting up ST-promoting tourism enterprises as a long-range policy.
Economic growth caused the concentration of population and industries on major cities such as Tokyo in the 1960s. This led to the central government's planned move of industrial and R&D establishments (including universities) to local cities and rural areas. Local governments initially welcomed the move-in of big industries and universities to activate the local economies. Around 1970, however, residents began to blame pollution from industry. In the 1980s, with support from central government, local governments built technoparks for relatively pollution-free industries such as information and other high/new technology (HNT) industries and R&D laboratories (labs) as well as colleges. In the 1990s, a recession caused by financial collapse hit the Japanese economy. Then central government began to promote the startup of ventures, and local governments expected the spontaneous clustering of ventures. Thus far, however, most technoparks fail to attract HNT establishments, only a limited number of HNT ventures were started up, and no cluster is visible. This situation raises the research question: Why the series of policies of promoting HNT parks, ventures and clusters remain unsuccessful and how to make them work in short as well as long-range views? Think-tanks have conducted some research on this, but they failed to predict the unsuccessful outcomes probably because they depended on the government for the data collection and may have hesitated in presenting frank findings to the government (except for a foreign analyst ). This paper will avoid relying on governmental data and choose a conceptual method rather than a data analysis approach.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The feasibility of policies for technoparks, ventures and clusters were examined with regard to local development. The cultural gap between the administrative and business (AB) world and the science and technology (ST) world was pointed out as the major obstacle, which was considered as generating many contradictions or inconsistencies in policies. In long-range view of local development, advices were presented to grow ST potential in rural areas.