نگرانی های فن آوری نوین مبتنی بر صنایع؛ مورد فناوری نانو
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|17983||2005||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||3548 کلمه|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Technovation, Volume 25, Issue 5, May 2005, Pages 457–462
Among the emerging technologies of this century, nanotechnology has been generating extensive interest, and its impact on society is expected to be widespread and all pervasive. Critical research in this field is being carried out all over the world, leading to a growing industry and entrepreneurial activity. Innovation aspects of such new technology based companies have important implications for the economic growth of nations. A framework for understanding these aspects that would be revealing and instructive in dealing with such new technology based innovation and technological change is attempted in this paper.
Small opportunities are often the beginning of great enterprises. Demosthenes (384–322 BC). Innovation, and its dynamic relation to economic growth, has generated considerable interest over the years (Bhat, 1997). An economy can achieve and maintain a high growth rate only through innovative capabilities of companies and organizations, resulting in the incessant generation of new technologies and new products. Having realized this, Schumpeter (1962) questioned whether the interaction between technology and management that makes innovation happen can be made a routine process that can then be managed more efficiently. He also propounded that major technological change brings about a process of ‘creative destruction’ that would dislodge incumbent companies and favor entrants, as wealth is created and redistributed through the constant change and disruption of existing companies, markets and structures. An emerging industry, such as nanotechnology, offers scope for looking at these and related issues very closely. Nanotechnology has become one of the most important of sectors, drawing intense interest. It is widely touched that it is going to change every aspect of our lives and lead to the generation of new capabilities, new products and new markets. It is thus described as an enabling technology that will pave the way for novelty in every stream of technology. Another important aspect associated with nanotechnology is its multidisciplinary nature, which makes it very difficult to pin down and prophesy the future impact in any specific sector appropriately. Its impact on society is expected to be widespread and all pervasive. Critical research in this field is being carried out all over the world. Interest in nanotechnology has grown substantially over the years and funding statistics has grown very impressively, particularly in the last couple of years, leading to a growing industry and entrepreneurial activity. Understanding the growth aspects associated with nanotechnology based companies would be revealing and instructive in dealing with such new technology based innovation and technological change.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The nanotechnology industry is heralding a new world order. Both the old order companies and new start-up companies are vying to garner competitive advantage in specific sectors. The sectors that are involved are many, due to the multidisciplinary nature of the technology, offering scope for numerous opportunities. Nanotechnology is heavily intertwined with biotechnology and information technology, making its scope very wide. Generous funding from governments and venture funds is helping initiate new ventures. Partnerships between academic and research institutes and industry have been forged to incubate new ventures. A number of partnerships between established companies and start-ups to develop and commercialize specific technologies have been formed. The situation bodes well for the rapid development of new products, new markets and new competencies. The new companies have a number of opportunities by way of first-mover advantages, and will be the trendsetters in creating new products and new markets. The extent to which they are able to consolidate their position within the emerging value network will depend upon the specific impact the products generated would have in different markets, the ultimate affected customer base, further technological developments and inter se performance. Existing companies have the options of developing new competencies, leveraging their existing skills and enabling the industry. They would need to recognize disruptive nanotechnologies and weigh options carefully in respect of the emerging technologies. This technology could have enormous implications for nations like India that are yet to initiate large effort in this rapidly emerging field.