کشف نقش های قهرمان چندگانه در اجرای سرمایه گذاری های فن آوری نوین
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|18026||2006||15 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Business Research, Volume 59, Issue 5, May 2006, Pages 549–563
This article reports the findings of a field study of a new venture electronic network enterprise from a business-to-business perspective. Network theory and the literatures of process innovation management and strategic marketing are used to generate theory about how new venture electronic network enterprises are created, and the roles champions play in their creation. Network champion roles and their relationships with other network participants are not well understood. The case study reveals how (a) network champions have both direct and indirect involvement in creating and commercializing new venture electronic networks, (b) champions within the venture rather than network champions strategically encourage or discourage supplier and buyer firms in joining, and (c) the accumulated knowledge of all champions, rather than the network champion alone, enhances successful implemented strategies. The findings provide researchers with a theoretical understanding of the role of the network champion in creating new ventures. Network champions filling multiple roles appear necessary for the successful creation of new high-tech ventures.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This article provides an understanding of the contribution of multiple champions in the creation process of new venture electronic network enterprises, the relationships between the different champions and the strategic impact of champions in a new venture. To this end, the article contributes by developing three propositions. In so doing, this study advances Burgelman's (1983b) linear model to a network environment and provides a theoretical framework on which a process model can be developed for start-up electronic ventures. The study focuses on the role participants play in developing process models. In particular, this study focuses on the impact network champions have in building a network start-up firm from the ground up and their influence on the type of relationships they have with other champions from a strategic perspective. Some major insights gained from this exploratory study of networks are summarized below and some major implications are discussed. P1a and P1b extend Burgelman's (1983b) study by explaining the key role the NC plays at different times of the creation process. For example, the NC is directly involved with the NVCC at the pre-birth/birth stages of the new venture. This is followed by direct involvement with the NVPC (who, in turn, is involved with participants building the technology for the B2B e-market firm) in the development phase. The importance of this proposition is the changing nature of the relationships between the champions over time. For start-up firms, NCs are in constant direct contact with investors and the NVCC throughout the creation process. Future research could investigate whether this direct relationship remains or if a gradual tapering off of the relationship with the B2B e-market firm takes place, or conversely, if the NC is constantly engaged in fine-tuning the balance of process and product innovation. NC's direct involvement with NVCC suggests that the definition and impetus process activities of the new venture were enhanced where definition and impetus are identified as core process activities (Burgelman, 1983b). The theoretical contribution of this proposition is the extension of the scholarly contribution of MacMillan (1983), Markham (1998), and Markham and Griffin (1998) by developing the network concept of start-up new venture electronic network enterprises. The importance of this concept is the changing nature of relationships between champions in dynamic markets. Proposition 2 extends Burgelman's (1983b) study by identifying the role of the NC in getting suppliers and buyers to “buy into” the firm. The NVIC and not the NC enhances this objective. The NVIC may be closer to the creation process than the NC because supplier and buyer firms are simultaneously required to make the creation a success. The theoretical contribution here is the validation of the contribution made by the NCs who act as “marriage brokers” to bring about new relationships amongst firms in networks at multiple levels across all enterprises (Woodside, 1994 and Woodside and Wilson, 1994). Although the NC was involved at multiple levels, the data suggest that it was the NVIC who was more involved than the NC at the firm level (Bizmarket) in persuading the potential supplier and buyer firms and third party firms to “buy into” Bizmarket. Proposition 3 suggests that the knowledge developed by all champions within the firm (e.g. NVCC, NVPC and the NVIC together with the NC) enhances strategic building that influences the B2B e-market's master strategy in a dynamic environment. Knowledge, more so than information, is fundamental to electronic network firms. Cadeaux (1997) argues (from an entrepreneurial perspective) that knowledge may be a more valuable organizational asset than information. This asset either cannot be imitated or can only be mimicked at a very high cost (Davis and Devinney, 1997). Furthermore, firms from both the supply side and buyer side will be able to evaluate their investment in joining (or “buying into”) a new venture. From a strategic perspective the network environment allows B2B e-market firms to access non-imitable resources, such as, knowledge, value-added in the network, and the type of alliances. In such salutations B2B e-market firms have the potential to maintain or enhance its competitive advantage. In such instances, the NVIC rather than the NC plays an important role of maintaining or enhancing competitive advantage over time. Although data were not collected after the launch stage (t2) of the firm, future research could focus on how the value-added through knowledge may instigate long-term relationships between the suppliers, buyers and the B2B e-market firm rather than short-term. The research findings relate to the network organization literature ( Achrol, 1997). Network champions are beneficial to an organization throughout the diffusion process. The study also considers the different relationships needed to establish and create a new venture in networks. Further studies could focus on the strategic impact of loosely coupled suppliers and buyers, and the role of champions in this process. The theoretical contribution of this proposition confirms Davis and Devinney's (1997) observation that accumulated knowledge by all participants and not just the NC is more valuable than information when considering strategy building. As such, knowledge cannot be easily imitated by other networked firms or can only be mimicked at a very high price. The viewpoints of the participants in the start-up process of B2B e-market firm in networks inform the managerial implications of the study. The findings ideally suggest a need to recognize several related stages in the entire creation process and the emphasis on flexibility when setting objectives in order to coordinate market requirements with the capabilities of the technology. Furthermore, in contrast to Rogers's (1995) analysis, the descriptive analyses suggest that the decision to adopt or reject an innovation can occur at any point of the creation process by any of the champions rather than at a single point. The case data analysis, however, indicates that once the initial decision to adopt the innovation is made, firms tend to rectify technical problems or adapt the new technology in order to meet the requirements of the market rather than to reject the innovation. This sequence is perhaps due to the high financial commitment to the development of the innovation. The implementation phase of the innovation is a set of parallel activities or simultaneous activities performed by all the functional areas in order to launch the product in the marketplace. Here, the focus is to have an operational e-market that consists of buyers and sellers who are ready to conduct business transactions. In addition, an integrated flowchart that maps all activities can be used by managers to evaluate the creation process in a specific setting and to adapt or change the process. Conclusions drawn from a single case study require caution. However, by examining a case from a network perspective, over time using unique data, this article does extend Burgelman's (1983b) ICV process model. This discussion highlights the roles and relationships of the champions in the creation process while acknowledging that the roles and activities are at times difficult to separate in a small organization like Bizmarket.com. The study also highlights that the role (degree of involvement) that network champions play acts as the moderating variable in all three propositions discussed. The propositions generated by the present study have implications for future research. For example, the propositions could be tested on similarly networked organizations to establish the generalizability of these propositions. Alternatively comparative analysis of process models could produce grounded categories that would enhance our understanding and management of process models in networked environments in the post-industrial era.