احساسات و رفتارهای مصرف کننده نسبت به وب سایت خوب طراحی شده
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|1817||2011||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Information & Management, Volume 48, Issues 4–5, May 2011, Pages 166–177
We analysed the effect of a well designed website in terms of five indicators: purchase intention, positive attitudes, trust, satisfaction and perceived risk. These effects (measured by 21 items) were successfully combined into a single construct using Rasch's Model. The construct was then tested by building a website designed by experts for a fictitious clothes company. It was compared with four less-well-designed websites created by modifying the well designed website by removing one of the four major constructs [web security; customer service; amount and quality of information provided; and usability]. These websites were surfed by 350 consumers (in five subsamples); the experts were then asked to express their perceptions and attitudes of the sites a posteriori. The association between the five websites and the 21 items was displayed visually through a perceptual map built with DYANE software. This showed that a well designed website does not always have the best effect on all 21 items measured.
Website and Internet technologies are today well established and dependable, however it is important to know what factors impact website success . Previous research focused on identifying website design factors controllable by the company, which could increase online sales and result in customer satisfaction, trust, and reduce perceived risk. These factors were classified in Fig. 1. Managers, particularly those of SMEs, should be able to develop transactional websites that Internet users will visit; however, not all visits lead to purchases.We performed a test to determine how simultaneous manipulation of several “key” variables affected purchase intention. As in prior tests, four design variables (web security, customer service, informative content, and usability) were modified to measure their effect on purchase intention and other measures of success. Prior researchers have compared secure and non-secure websites , navigable and non-navigable websites , etc., but the idea of simultaneously considering the effect of different effects on website results is new. According to statistics from the Spanish National Statistics Institute and the E-Commerce and Direct Marketing Association, the most important determinant of online shopping is perceived security: nearly half of consumers in a McAffe study terminated an order or abandoned their shopping cart due to security fears. Even to get a good deal, 63% would not purchase from a website that did not display a trust mark or security policy . Together with web security, it seemed likely that the amount of product information and the presence of a wide range of services were really important to the customer when shopping online. As the E-Commerce and Direct Marketing Association concluded, 80% of online buyers purchased online because they could obtain information content and additional services had been offered. Finally, the relevance of usability of the site has been noted in several works. Other indicators are: (i) more than 83% of Internet users leave a website if they feel they have to interact too many times to find a product or service; (ii) 58% of visitors who experience usability problems do not return to the site; (iii) about 60% of the time, people do not find the information they are seeking; (iv) $25 billion is lost every year due to poor website usability; and (v) the average e-commerce site could increase its sales by 100% if it had improved usability. Our work was based on constructs from IS, marketing, and psychology in an integrated theoretical framework of online consumer behaviour . Specifically we focused on two major objectives. Firstly, to build a tool capable of measuring the different desired effects of a well designed website in terms of satisfaction, online trust, perceived risk, and purchase intention. Our tool was created to provide a one-dimensional measure of a well designed website. This construct was created using the Rasch Model to obtain measurements that do not depend on the instrument used and that provided scales that were not linked to the objects being measured, that is, that did not vary from one interviewee to another. The advantage of this method was that a joint measure of different items could be created for the same dimension or construct. Secondly, our work sought an easy way of visually displaying the similarities between the desired effects of a website and the five websites: a perceptual map was employed, using the ANAFACO technique included in DYANE software. Perceptual maps were not used because there was no simultaneous comparison of several websites. To identify which website came closest to our measured effects, four subsamples of 65 individuals each were exposed to the four manipulated websites. The subsamples were compared with each other and with a control subsample of 110 Internet users who were showed the well designed website. Our intention was to provide managers with some general recommendations on how to distribute their resources when it came to designing a transactional website, so that they did not use unnecessary effort in providing concepts that were less useful in stimulating online sales.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study was intended to achieve two major objectives. Firstly, to develop a measurement instrument which would determine website success and unite different concepts associated to this success. Secondly, and following guidelines in the literature, to check if certain website characteristics are essentially relevant and determining factors for success. To achieve both objectives an well website was designed for a hypothetical textile company called Resaka which contemplated the characteristics indicated in the literature as being necessary for successful online sales. Four other versions of this well website were also created, eliminating a different characteristic from each. Information was collected from 350 Internet users between 18 and 35 years old. The first objective has provided two major conclusions. Firstly, the Rasch Model has proved to be an appropriate procedure for obtaining reliable, valid measurement scales. Secondly, an instrument able to evaluate website success has been designed which reflects different success-related aspects: low perceived risk, attitude, trust, satisfaction and purchase intention. Achieving this objective provides companies with useful information for a better understanding of the key dimensions to successful online sales. However, when this instrument is broken down and represented on a perceptual map (considering the 21 items) the idiosyncrasy of the spatial representation technique disperses the construct components in the space. Thus, the different websites are associated to the items which are closest to them on the map. This means that the map yields relative results (the websites are compared with the 21 items), but this does not invalidate the construct as an absolute tool for measuring website success. In relation to the second objective, it has been found that the different websites analysed produce very different effects. The results show that a well website in terms of web security, customer service, informative quality and usability does not have the best effects in absolute terms. Our study shows that the well website is outstanding in items concerning short term satisfaction and low perceived risk. Thus, a technically perfect website, with good web security indicators and plenty of informative elements satisfies the user. In contrast, this well website does not carry higher levels of purchase intention (actions), trust (feelings) or long term pleasure attitudes. The results show that the construct “desired effects” is not uniformly present in an well website. In other words, all the desired effects do not associate with a website which in principle is well designed in terms of web security (with logos and certifications), customer service (with links on periods, refunds, guarantees, contact, etc.), informative quality (with catalogues, colour options, zoom, offers, prices etc.), and usability (with horizontal navigation bars and fast screens where shopping is fast with few clicks). The following managerial implications may be inferred. Firstly, it is not possible to speak of a well website design which on its own is able to bring about all the desired effects. Consumer preferences vary widely, so that what some Internet users value does not coincide with what others value. This study only shows that a website which is as perfect as possible according to the literature will bring more satisfaction and less perceived risk than others. Therefore, if the company objectives include creating an image, achieving satisfied customers and credibility in the market, they should follow the guidelines for building well websites in terms of web security, customer service, informative content and usability. This would make sense for textile companies which develop websites which are not strictly oriented at sales, although they may well supplement their physical channel with the opportunities offered by the new technologies. Secondly, if the manager's objective is short term clothing online sales among young people, then account must be taken of the fact that the offer of online services is given a comparatively worse evaluation than other web design variables. In effect, our results show that to improve sales in the textile sector among young people, comparatively more care must be taken over usability (quick and easy to use), security (no risk to buy on line) and information (sizes, colours, and catalogue) than in detailing all the shopping services being offered. Therefore, in business situations where resources are scarce, young online clothes shoppers tolerate service deficiencies better than other missing variables (security, information and usability). This does not mean that services should be forgotten, just that they are less helpful in short term online sales in this particular sector, for this kind of public and in this specific country. Therefore, this implication must be understood in the context of the sector being analysed (textile) where the object of exchange is a tangible product. In other areas (such as leisure, tourism, finance, etc.), the implications may be different to those obtained in this study. Finally, and following previous works , it has been shown that appropriate layout can increase usability; product information and variety of product presentations can increase website informative content; an optimal range of services can increase website online services, and the presence of some security indicators can enhance website security. So, an appropriate balance of these elements must be studied for each industry, each country and each kind of public in order to improve website success (satisfaction, buying intention, pleasure attitudes, low perceived risk and trust). In sum, and as a result of the above, companies cannot pretend to be everything for everybody. The results show that young clothing shoppers who value web security are less interested in the service offered or in usability. That is why, when designing an well website, although there should be an optimum balance between the different design variables, the company must know a priori the characteristics of its target public in order to develop an informative sales channel appropriate to their requirements. For that reason, a market study would be useful to provide informative content on the values and needs of the company's majority public, before the company's website is left to the designers and experts. The limitations of this study include the fact that it concentrates on the Spanish textile sector which is a mature sector, and so the conclusions cannot be generalised to other sectors with other characteristics. A cross-cultural comparison to analyse the different manipulations in different cultural contexts would be interesting. Likewise, future studies could contemplate another type of statistical methodology, for example, multi-sample structural equation models capable of analysing cause-effect relationships between several concepts considered simultaneously for different segments/websites. Additionally, our model could be incorporated into larger models describing on-line intentions and behaviours. For example, a comprehensive model of on-line purchasing might include factors such as personal characteristics which also can affect perceptions and behaviours.